Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Atropine

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Atropine sulfate.

Class of drug

  • Parasympatholytic agent.
  • Plant alkaloid used as an anticholinergic agent.

Description

Chemical name

  • Endo-(+/-)-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)benzeneacetic acid 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl ester.
  • 1-alpha H,5-alpha H-tropan-3-alpha-ol(+/-)-tropate (ester).

Molecular formula

  • C17H23NO3.

Molecular weight

  • 289.

Physical properties

  • Atropine sulfate occurs as colorless and odorless crystals, or white, crystalline powder.
  • 1 g of atropine sulfate is soluble in 0.5 mL of water, 5 mL of alcohol and 2.5 mL of glycerin.
  • Commercially available as a clear, sterile solution.

Storage requirements

  • Atropine (tablets and injectable) should be stored at room temperature.
  • Avoid freezing.

Uses

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Indications

  • Correction of profound bradycardia and bradyarrhythmias.
  • Correction of hypotension caused by bradycardia.
  • Used as antidote to organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.
  • In conjunction with anticholinesterase drugs during antagonism of neuromuscular blockade.
  • Not indicated in reptiles as a premedicant in anesthesia.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Atropine should not be mixed with bromides, iodides, sodium bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate, alkalis or noradrenaline.
  • It is not recommended to combine atropine with alpha-2 agonists.
  • Atropine may aggravate some clinical signs seen with amitraz toxicity, leading to hypertension and gut stasis.
  • Drugs which may enhance the activity of atropine:
    • Antihistamines.
    • Procainamide.
    • Quinidine.
    • Pethidine [Pethidine].
    • Benzodiazepines.
    • Phenothiazines.
  • The adverse effects of atropine may be potentiated by:
    • Primidone.
    • Disopyramide.
    • Corticosteroids (prolonged use may increase intraocular pressure).
  • Drugs enhanced by atropine:
    • Thiazide diuretics.
    • Sympathomimetics.
  • Drugs antagonized by atropine:
    • Metoclopramide [Metoclopramide].

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders. USA. pp 564.
  • Ramsey I et al (2011) Atropine. In: BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 7th end. BSAVA, UK.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. pp 383.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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