Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Amoxicillin

Synonym(s): Amoxycillin

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Amoxicillin

Class of drug

  • Penicillin antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 6[D](-)-a-amino-p-hydroxyphenylacetamido] penicillanic acid.

Molecular formula

  • C16H19N3O5S.

Molecular weight

  • 365.40.

Physical properties

  • Acid-stable, beta-lactamase-susceptible.
  • It occurs as a practically odorless, white, crystalline powder that is sparingly soluble in water.

Storage requirements

  • Oral suspension should preferably be refrigerated.
  • Any unused oral suspension should be discarded after 14 days.
  • Store at room temperature in tight containers.

Uses

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Indications

  • Little use in reptiles, where most infections are caused by gram-positive bacteria commonly resistant to amoxicillin.
  • Organisms that are generally not susceptible include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia, Klebsiella, indole-positive Proteus (Proteus mirabilis is susceptible), Enterobacter, Citrobacter, and Acitenobacter, as well as Rickettsia, mycobacteria, fungi, Mycoplasma and viruses.
  • Better efficacy when combined with clavulanic acid.
  • Indicated in reptiles to treat infections caused by anaerobic organisms and some infections caused by gram-positive organisms.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Bacteriostatic antimicrobials (chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracyclines, sulfonamides)
  • There is in vitro antagonism, but actual clinical significance is not clear.
Probenecid
  • Will decrease the renal tubular secretion of penicillin antibiotics and thus prolong their blood levels.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Rasmussen C, Allender M C, Phillips C A et al (2017) Multi-drug resistance patterns of enteric bacteria in two populations of free-ranging Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). J Zoo Wildlife Med 48 (3), 708-715 PubMed.
  • Shaikh I K, Dixit P P, Pawade B S et al (2017) Assessment of cultivable oral bacterial flora from important venomous snakes of India and their antibiotic susceptibilities. Curr Microbiol 74 (11), 1278-1286 PubMed.
  • Wimalasena S H M P, Shin G W, Hossain S et al (2017) Potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Aeromonas species isolated from pet turtles and their environment. J Vet Med Sci 79 (5), 921-926 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2008) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 6th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 1120.
  • Carpenter J W (2005) Exotic Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 564.
  • Tennant B (1999) Small Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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