Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Amikacin

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Amikacin.

Class of drug

  • Aminoglycoside antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • (2S)-4-Amino-N-[(2S,3S,4R,5S)-5-amino-2-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-4-amino-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-4-[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(aminomethyl)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-oxan-2-yl]oxy-3-hydroxy-cyclohexyl]-2-hydroxybutanamide.

Molecular formula

  • C22H43N5O13.

Molecular weight

  • 585.

Physical properties

  • White, crystalline powder.
  • Sparingly soluble in water.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature. Stable for at least 2 years at room temperature.
  • Freezing or temperatures above 40°C/104°F should be avoided.
  • Solutions may become very pale yellow with time but this does not indicate a loss of potency.

Uses

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Indications

  • Good efficacy against most gram-negative bacteria isolated from reptiles, including Pseudomonas spp, Citrobacter spp, Morganella spp, etc.
  • Not appropriate to treat gram-positive isolates from reptiles.
  • May be used in some cases of gentamicin-resistant infections.
  • Less toxicity potential than gentamicin
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics are commonly used to treat serious infections, using other safer antibiotics to treat milder infections.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Avoid the concurrent use of other nephrotoxic, ototoxic or neurotoxic agents, eg amphotericin B [Amphotericin B], cisplatin, furosemide [Furosemide], methoxyflurane. Increase monitoring and adjust dosages when these drugs must be used with amikacin.
  • Aminoglycosides may be inactivated by beta-lactam antibiotics, eg penicillins, cephalosporins or heparin when mixed in vitro. This may present a problem in vivoin patients who have substantially diminished renal function.
  • The effect of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, eg atracurium, pancuronium, tubocuramine, vecuronium, may be enhanced by aminoglycosides.
  • Synergism may occur when aminoglycosides are used with penicillins or cephalosporins (Streptococcus faecalis) or with ticarcillin [Ticarcillim] (Pseudomonas aeruginosa).

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Chung T H, Yi S W, Kim B S et al (2017) Identification and antibiotic resistance profiling of bacterial isolates from septicaemic soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis). Veterinaria Medicina 62 (3), 169-177 VetMedResource.
  • Hossain S, Wimalasena S H M P, De Zoysa M et al (2017) Prevalence of Citrobacter spp from pet turtles and their environment. J Exotic Pet Med 26 (1), 7-12 VetMedResource.
  • Liu P Y, Weng L L, Tseng S Y et al (2017) Colistin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from snakes in Taiwan. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol [Epub] 7058396 PubMed.
  • Rasmussen C, Allender M C, Phillips C A et al (2017) Multi-drug resistance patterns of enteric bacteria in two populations of free-ranging Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). J Zoo Wildlife Med 48 (3), 708-715 PubMed.
  • Sykes IV J M, Ramsay E C, Schumacher J et al (2006) Evaluation of an implanted osmotic pump for delivery of amikacin to corn snakes (Elaphe guttata guttata). J Zoo Wildlife Med 37 (3), 373-380 PubMed.
  • Johnson J H, Jensen J M, Brumbaugh G W et al (1997) Amikacin pharmacokinetics and the effects of ambient temperature on the dosage regimen in ball pythons (Python regius). J Zoo Wildlife Med 28 (1), 80-88 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary 9th edition: Part B - Exotic Pets. BSAVA, UK. pp 195.
  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders. USA. pp 564.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.
  • Bishop Y (1998) Ed The Veterinary Formulary. 4th edn. British Veterinary Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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