Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Allopurinol

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Allopurinol.

Class of drug

  • Xanthine oxidase inhibitor.

Description

Chemical name

  • 1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-d']pyrimidin-4(2H)-one

Molecular formula

  • C5H4N4O.

Molecular weight

  • 136.

Physical properties

  • Tasteless, fluffly, white to off-white powder with a slight odor.
  • Very slightly soluble in both water and alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Tablets should be stored at room temperature in well-closed containers.
  • The drug is stable in both air and light.
  • The powder for injection (rarely used in reptiles) should be stored at 25°C/77°F.
  • Once diluted, store at room temperature and use within 10 h.
  • Do not refrigerate.

Uses

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Indications

  • Treatment of gout [Gout].
  • Treatment of elevated uric acid levels in renal disease (to prevent gout):
    • Generally speaking in reptiles, uric acid is considered elevated when higher than 500 μmol/L (8.5 mg/dL).
    • Uric acid should be assessed after fasting.
  • Uric acid uroliths and hyperuricosuric calcium oxalate urolithiasis prophylaxis to prevent recurrence.
  • While gout is a common condition found in reptiles, little research has been done on the use and efficacy of allopurinol.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Allopurinol inhibits the metabolism of azothioprine and enhances the risk of leucopenia. The combination should be avoided.
  • In man may increase the effect of:
    • Azathioprine.
    • Cyclophosphamide.
    • Oral anticoagulants.
    • Theophylline.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hernadez-Divers F J, Martínez-Jiménez D, Bush S et al (2008) Effects of allopurinol on plasma uric acid levels in normouricaemic and hyperuricaemic green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Vet Rec 162 (4), 112 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders. USA. pp 564.
  • Mayer J & Donnelly T M (2013) Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets. Elsevier, USA. pp 752.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.
  • Tennant B (1999) Small Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK. ISBN: 0 905214 44 7.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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