Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Acyclovir

Synonym(s): Aciclovir, Zovirax

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Acyclovir

Class of drug

  • Pyrimidine analogue.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-Amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6H-purin-6-one.

Molecular formula

  • C8H11N5O3.

Molecular weight

  • 225.21.

Physical properties

  • White, crystalline powder.
  • 1.3 mg are soluble in one mL of water.
  • Acyclovir sodium has a solubility of >100 mg/mL.

Storage requirements

  • Tablets: tight, light resistant containers at room temperature.
  • Suspension and powder for injection: store at room temperature.
  • After reconstitution, the solution is stable at 25°C/77°F for 24 h.

Uses

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Indications

  • Management of herpesviral infections, particularly in tortoises. It may also be useful to treat infections with iridoviruses in chelonians and other reptiles.
  • Newer antiviral agents, eg ganciclovir, cidofovir, penciclovir, may be significantly more effective and their use may be more prevalent in the future.
  • Both acyclovir at 50 µg/mL and ganciclovir at 25 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL, reduced chelonian herpesvirus replication in vitro, but other studies have reported little effect for Tortoise Herpesvirus 1.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Nephrotoxic drugs: increased potential for nephrotoxicity.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Allender M C, Mitchell M A, Yarborough J et al (2013) Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of acyclovir and valacyclovir in North American box turtles (Terrapene spp). J Vet Pharmacol Ther 36 (2), 205-208 WileyOnline.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 1296.
  • Mayer J & Donnelly T M (2013) Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets. Elsevier, USA. pp 752.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R & Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 579.
  • Tennant B (1999) Small Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK. ISBN: 0 905214 44 7.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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