Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Acepromazine maleate

Synonym(s): ACP

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Acepromazine maleate.

Class of drug

  • Phenothiazine.

Description

Chemical name

  • 1-{10-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]-12H-phenothiazin-2yl}ethanone.

Molecular formula

  • C19H22N2OS.

Molecular weight

  • 326.46.

Physical properties

  • Yellow crystalline solid or powder.

Storage requirements

  • Protect from light.

Uses

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Indications

  • Sedation.
  • Premedication - provides moderate tranquilization but no analgesia.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

With other drugs

  • Other central nervous system (CNS) depressant agents (barbiturates, narcotics, anesthetics) may cause additive CNS depression if used with acepromazine.
  • Quinidine when given with phenothiazines may cause additive cardiac depression.
  • Antidiarrheal mixtures, eg kaolin/pectin, bismuth subsalicylate, and antacids may cause reduced gastrointestinal absorption of oral phenothiazines.
  • Increased blood levels of both drugs may result if propranolol is administered with phenothiazines.
  • As phenothiazines block alpha-adrenergic receptors, concomitant use with epinephrine [Epinephrine] may lead to unopposed beta activity, thereby causing vasodilation and tachycardia.
  • Phenytoin metabolism may be decreased if given concurrently with phenothiazines.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Adel M, Sadegh A B, Arizza V et al (2017) Anesthetic efficacy of ketamine-diazepam, ketamine-xylazine, and ketamine-acepromazine in Caspian pond turtles (Mauremys caspica). Indian J Pharmacol 49 (1), 93-97 PubMed.
  • Ferreira Alves-Junior J R, Scarpa Bosso A C, Andrade M B et al (2012) Association of acepromazine with propofol in giant Amazon turtles Podocnemis expansa reared in captivity. Acta Cirurgia Brasileira 27 (8), 552-556 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 195.
  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 1296.
  • Carpenter J W & Marion C J (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 564.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (2013) Veterinary Medicines Guidance Notes. Website: www.gov.uk.
  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R, Meyer J (2004) Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Publishing, United Kingdom. pp 579.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. pp 383.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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