Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Injectable anesthesia

Synonym(s): Parenteral anesthesia

Contributor(s): David Perpinan, Sarah Pellett

Introduction

  • Parenteral anesthesia is referred to anesthesia given by injection.
  • Local anesthesia given by injection will also be included in this text.

Uses

  • Commonly used in reptiles for induction of anesthesia, followed by intubation and maintenance with inhalant drugs Gaseous anesthesia.
  • It can also be used for short procedures or when heavy sedation or light anesthesia is required (radiography in dangerous or uncooperative species, placement of an esophagostomy tube, etc).

Advantages

  • Low investment in anesthetic equipment.
  • Optimal for species that hold their breath with inhalant anesthetics, particularly tortoises and aquatic species.

Disadvantages

  • Induction and recovery times are prolonged.
  • More difficult to reverse in cases of complications (when compared to inhalant anesthetics).

Technical problems

  • Intravascular administration may be difficult in some individuals.
  • Controversy over the renal portal system.

Alternative techniques

Time required

Preparation

  • Minimal preparation that takes no more than 1 min.

Procedure

  • 1 min.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Route of administration

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Anesthetic drugs

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Maintenance of anesthesia

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Renal portal system

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Local anesthesia

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Adel M, Sadegh A B, Arizza V et al (2017) Anesthetic efficacy of ketamine-diazepam, ketamine-xylazine, and ketamine-acepromazine in Caspian pond turtles (Mauremys caspica). Indian J Pharmacol 49 (1), 93-97 PubMed.
  • West J A (2017) Alfaxalone. J Exotic Pet Med 26 (2), 156-161 JExoticPetMed.
  • Keller K (2015) Therapeutic review: propofol and fospropofol. J Exotic Anim Med 24 (3), 367-371 VetMedResource.
  • Knotek Z, Hrda A, Knotkova Z et al (2013) Alfaxalone anaesthesia in the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Acta Veterinaria Brno 82 (1), 109-114 PubMed.
  • Knotek Z (2014) Alfaxalone as an induction agent for anesthesia in terrapins and tortoises. Vet Rec 175 (13), 327 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1296.
  • Mader D R (2006) Ed Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1242.
  • Girling S J & Raiti P (2004) BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. BSAVA, UK. pp 383.


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