Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Pre- / post-ovulatory stasis

Synonym(s): Follicular stasis, Egg binding, Dystocia

Contributor(s): Mark Naguib, Yvette Rowntree

Introduction

  • Cause: pre-ovulatory stasis occurs when follicles fail to ovulate and become progressively larger. The cause is not fully understood. Post-ovulatory stasis may be obstructive or non-obstructive and is due to a variety of causes.
  • Signs: lethargy, anorexia, coelomic enlargement, hindlimb paresis, dyspnea, partial clutch laid.
  • Diagnosis: presumptive based on history, exam, imaging and bloods.
  • Treatment: pre-ovulatory stasis must be treated by surgical ovariectomy. Post-ovulatory stasis may be treated through husbandry improvements, supportive care, medical induction or surgical salpingotomy or salpingectomy.
  • Prognosis: pre-ovulatory stasis where a coelomitis is present carries a guarded prognosis. Post-ovulatory stasis carries a good prognosis depending on the underlying causes.
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Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pre-ovulatory stasis (follicular stasis)

  • Etiology is unknown.
  • Proposed causes include:

Post-ovulatory stasis (dystocia)

  • Obstructive causes:
    • Oversized eggs.
    • Abnormal shaped eggs.
    • Egg that has retropulsed into the bladder (chelonia).
    • Adhesions to oviduct.
    • Urinary calculi or other coelomic space occupying masses.
  • Non-obstructive causes:
    • Suboptimal environmental temperatures.
    • Lack of a suitable nesting area.
    • Dehydration.
    • Hypocalcemia.

Pathophysiology

Pre-ovulatory stasis

  • Follicles fail to ovulate.
  • Follicles increase in size.
  • Animal may become inappetent as a result of space occupying mass.
  • Secondary infection with commensal bacteria occurs.
  • Follicles rupture releasing yolk.
  • Yolk causes inflammation and a yolk coelomitis.
  • Death if untreated.

Post-ovulatory stasis

  • Obstructive dystocias:
    • Eggs physically cannot be passed.
    • Eggs are retained.
    • Secondary problems develop.
  • Non-obstructive:
    • Suboptimal temperatures and/or lack of calcium lead to poor uterine contraction and egg retention.
    • Lack of a suitable nesting area causes behavioral dystocia.

Timecourse

  • Pre-ovulatory stasis is often chronic but may present acutely.
  • Post-ovulatory stasis may be acute or chronic.

Epidemiology

  • Generally individual cases, however if secondary to environment or nutrition, cases may occur in clusters.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Di Girolamo N & Selleri P (2017) Reproductive disorders in snakes. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 20 (2), 391-409 PubMed.
  • Hernandez-Divers S (2010) Reptile diagnostic endoscopy and endosurgery. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 13 (2), 217-242 PubMed.
  • Rivera S (2008) Health assessment of the reptilian reproductive tract. J Exotic Pet Med 17 (4), 259-266 VetMedResource.
  • Lock B A (2000) Reproductive surgery in reptiles. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 3, 733–752 PubMed.
  • Mader D R (1996) Reproductive surgery in the green iguana. J Exotic Pet Med 5 (4), 214–221 JExoticPetMed.

Other sources of information

  • Klaphake E, Gibbons P M, Sladky K K & Carpenter J W (2018) Reptiles. In: Exotic Animal Formulary. 5th edn. Ed: Carpenter J W. Elsevier, USA. pp 81-166.
  • Mader D R et al (2006) Surgery, Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 581-630.
  • McArthur S & Hernandez-Divers S (2004) Surgery, Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Wiley-Blackwell, UK. pp 403-464.
  • Johnson J (2004) Urogneital System. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. Eds: Girling S & Raiti P. BSAVA, UK. pp 261-272.
  • Wilkinson R et al (2004) Diagnostic Imaging Techniques, Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Wiley-Blackwell, UK. pp 187-238.

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