Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Osteomyelitis

Contributor(s): Thomas Dutton, Robert Johnson

Introduction

  • Cause: most frequently bacterial but rarely fungal etiology.
  • Signs: inflammation, loss of function, pain, bony swelling, deformity, anorexia, weight loss, reduced activity.
  • Diagnosis: diagnostic imaging, biopsy, cytology, culture, bloodwork.
  • Treatment: antimicrobials.
  • Prognosis: good to poor depending on severity.
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Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Most frequently bacterial but rarely fungal etiology, eg Nannizziopsis spp, Aspergillus spp, Mucor spp.
  • Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Mycobacterium spp are common etiologies.
  • May result from infection elsewhere, eg pneumonia Pneumonia, bite wound, gingivitis.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Most bacterial infections that extend to cause osteomyelitis are opportunistic bacteria infecting an immunocompromised host.
  • Husbandry deficiencies or underlying disease process contribute to immune deficiency.

Specific

  • Extension of periodontal disease Periodontal disease, stomatitis Stomatitis, traumatic wounds, ulcerative dermatitis, shell infections are commonly implicated in cases of osteomyelitis.
  • Septicemic spread of bacteria to skeletal structures is another route of infection.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • De Souza S O et al (2014) Osteomyelitis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar derby in boa constrictor. J Zoo Wildl Med 45 (3), 642-644 PubMed.
  • Rothschild B M et al (2014) Paravertebral masses in blue-tailed monitor, Varanus dorianus, indicative of soft-tissue infection with associated osteomyelitis. J Zoo Wildl Med 45 (1), 47-52 PubMed.
  • Kolker S et al (2012) Osteomyelitis due to Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae: the price of exotic pets. Clin Microbiol Infect 18 (2), 167-170 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Rothschild B M, Schultze H P & Pellegrini R (2012) Summary of Osseous Pathology in Amphibians and Reptiles. In: Herpetological Osteopathology: Annotated Bibliography of Amphibians and Reptiles. Springer Science & Business Media, USA.


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