Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Reptiles

Bullous spectaculopathy

Synonym(s): Pseudobuphthalmos

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, Mark Naguib

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Introduction

  • Cause: nasolacrimal obstruction or infection.
  • Signs: spectacle enlargement -> protuberant opaque ocular mass.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs.
  • Treatment: aspiration of the lacrimal fluid, surgical excision.
  • Prognosis: generally good.
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Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • The enclosure of the preocular tear film by the spectacle in snakes and some squamates, notably several geckos, means that nasolacrimal obstruction leads to swelling of the space between the cornea and the spectacle rather than epiphora.
  • Upwelling infection along the nasolacrimal duct results in abscessation between the cornea and spectacle, but here no infectious agent is involved and the problem is merely a mechanical swelling of the spectacle.
  • The nasolacrimal obstruction may be congenital with a developmental atresia of the duct, as has been reported in a blood python.
  • More commonly it is caused by an acquired physical obstruction to the duct.
  • In some cases, there is an infectious etiology at its origin, in which case the condition should probably be termed a subspectacular abscess Subspectacular abscessation
  • Interestingly there are snakes which develop this condition just before ecdysis or shedding, when presumably the shed epithelium, which includes that of the nasolacrimal duct as well as the dermal epidermis, impedes tear drainage for a few days.

Predisposing factors

General

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Cullen C L, Wheler C & Grahn B H (2000) Diagnostic ophthalmology. Bullous spectaculopathy++ in a king snake. Can Vet J 41 (4), 327-328 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Ballard B & Cheek R (2017) Exotic Animal Medicine for the Veterinary Technician. 3rd edn. Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Girling S J (2013) Veterinary Nursing of Exotic Pets. 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Williams D (2012) The Reptile Eye. In: Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets. Wiley-Blackwell, UK. pp 178-191.
  • Lawton M (2006) Reptilian Opthalmology. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Ed: Mader D R. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 322-342.

Reproduced with permission from Bonnie Ballard & Ryan Cheek: Exotic Animal Medicine for the Veterinary Technician © 2017, and David L Williams: Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets © 2012, published by John Wiley & Sons.


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