ISSN 2398-2985      

Cystotomy

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): surgical incision urinary bladder urolithiasis urolith


Introduction

  • Surgical technique used for removal of uroliths, urinary bladder neoplasia, repair of bladder rupture, obtaining of diagnostic samples for histopathology and culture and sensitivity.
  • Urinalysis Urinalysis: dipstick analysis Urinalysis: overview (including urine culture   Urinalysis: culture and sensitivity), plain radiography Radiography: digital, contrast cystography, ultrasonography of the bladder and kidneys and an evaluation of renal function are recommended as part of the pre-operative evaluation of the patient.
  • Uroliths in female guinea pigs rarely cause obstructions.
  • Uroliths in male guinea pigs carry a high risk of urethral obstruction.
  • Radiographic finding of bladder sludge in older guinea pigs can be incidental and should be evaluated in conjunction with other clinical findings.

Uses

Advantages

  • Technically easy surgery.
  • Requires minimal equipment.
  • Allows direct visualization of bladder mucosa where cystoscopy is prohibited by patient’s size.

Disadvantages

  • Requires general anesthesia.
  • Carries a risk of infection, bleeding, and post-operative complications.
  • Risk of post-operative adhesions, particularly with the intestinal tract.
  • More invasive than cystoscopy/cloacoscopy.
  • Risk of disseminating bladder neoplasia.
  • Removal of uroliths is not always curative and there is a high risk of recurrence:
    • Repeat surgeries are not advised.
    • Uroliths may return as quickly as three weeks.
    • Cystitis may continue.
  • If incising into a flaccid bladder, there is a risk that both the ventral and dorsal walls will be cut.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Guarded.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Szabo Z (2020) Soft Tissue Surgery: Rodents. In: Ferrets, rabbits, and rodents. Clinical Medicine and Surgery.  Ed: Carpenter J W & Quesenberry K E. Elsevier/Saunders, USA, pp. 477.
  • Divers S J (2019) Surgery: principles and techniques. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. 3rd edn. Ed: Girling S J & Raiti P, BSAVA, UK. pp 231-232.

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