Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Guinea Pigs

Trimethoprim-sulfadiazine / Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

Synonym(s): Norodine, Tribrissen, Trimacare, Septrin, Duphatrim, Co-Trimazine

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Trimethoprim/sulfonamide.

Class of drug

  • Potentiated sulfonamide antibiotic.

Description

Physical properties

  • Trimethoprim: odorless, bitter-tasting, white to cream-colored crystals or crystalline powder. Slightly soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol.
  • Sulfadiazine: odorless or nearly odorless, white to slightly yellow powder. Practically insoluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol.
  • Sulfamethoxazole: practically odorless, white to off-white, crystalline powder. Approximately 0.29 mg is soluble in 1 mL of water and 20 mg are soluble in 1 mL of alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Store in tight containers at room temperature.

Uses

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Indications

  • Many organisms are susceptible including Nocardia, Brucella, gram-negative bacilli, some gram-positive organisms (Streptococci spp, Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, Eimeria and coccidial species).
  • Pseudomonas spp and Leptospira spp are usually resistant.
  • Trimethoprim/sulfonamide is useful in the management of urinary, respiratory tract and prostatic infections, but are ineffective in the presence of necrotic tissue.
  • Trimethoprim alone may be used for urinary, prostatic, systemic salmonella and respiratory tract infections.
  • Some strains of Streptococcus zooepidemicus (causing cervical lymphadenitis in guinea pigs) may be resistant.
  • Fewer adverse effects are seen with trimethoprim alone.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Warfarin
  • The anticoagulant effect of warfarin may be enhanced by trimethoprim/sulfonamide.
Antacids
  • May decrease the bioavailability of sulfonamides if administered concurrently.
  • Although sulfonamides may displace other plasma protein-bound drugs such as methotrexate, probenecid, thiazide diuretics and salicylates, the clinical relevance of such interactions is unclear. However, patients should be monitored for enhanced effects of displaced agents.

with diagnostic tests

  • When using the Jaffe alkaline picrate reaction assay for creatinine determination trimethoprim/sulfonamide may cause an over estimation of approximately 10%.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Referred papers

Other sources of information

  • Maguire S & Hawk C T (2012) Formulary. In: The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and other Rodents. Eds:Suckow M, Stevens K & Wilson R. Academic Press, USA. pp 1193-1229.
  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, United Kingdom. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 1296.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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