ISSN 2398-2985      

Tramadol

6guinea pig

Introduction

Name

  • Tramadol hydrochloride.

Class of drug

  • Analgesic drug with both an opioid and non-opioid mediated mechanisms of analgesic action.

Description

Chemical name

  • (±) cis-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl) cyclohexanol hydrochloride.

Molecular formula

  • C16H26ClNO2.

Molecular weight

  • 299.8.

Physical properties

  • White crystalline powder.
  • Freely soluble in water or alcohol.
  • Slightly soluble in acetone.

Storage requirements

  • Tramadol tablets should be stored at room temperature in tight, light-resistant containers.
  • Tramadol is a Schedule 3 Controlled Drug in the UK and a similar status may apply in other countries.
Be aware of the potential for abuse of the drug by humans.

Uses

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Indications

  • Mild to moderate acute pain.
  • Adjunctive analgesic agent in management of chronic pain from cancer Neoplasia overview or osteoarthritis Arthritis/osteoarthritis.
  • When used in combination with NSAIDs, it may be particularly useful for chronic pain conditions.
  • It can be considered as an alternative analgesic drug for animals that are intolerant of NSAIDs.
  • The efficacy, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol are not well described in guinea pigs; therefore, tramadol should not be used as a first line analgesic drug Analgesia.
  • It may be useful for epidural anesthesia but reports of this use are lacking in guinea pigs and this would be largely prohibited by most patients’ size.
  • Tramadol appears to be efficacious for the management of both acute and chronic pain, however the recommended dose range is largely empirical due to a lack of combined PK/PD studies.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

With other drugs

  • Because of tramadol’s monoamine reuptake inhibition, it should not be given with tri-cyclic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors or monoamine oxidase inhibitors due to the risk of serotonin syndrome (increased heart rate, pupil dilation, twitching and hyperreflexia) and potential for seizures Seizures.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Carpenter J W (2013) Rodents. In: Exotic Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. Elsevier, USA. pp 494.
  • The NOAH Compendium. Datasheets of Licensed Veterinary Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
  • US Food & Drug Administration (FDA). Questions and Answers on FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Website: www.fda.gov.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate. Adverse Reaction Reporting. Website: www.vmd.defra.gov.uk.

Organisation(s)

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