Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Guinea Pigs

Tetracycline

Synonym(s): Tetracycline HCl

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Tetracycline.

Class of drug

  • Tetracycline antibiotic.

Description

Molecular formula

  • C22H24N2O8.

Molecular weight

  • 444.43.

Physical properties

  • Moderately hygroscopic, yellow, crystalline powder.
  • About 100 mg/mL is soluble in water and 10 mg/mL is soluble in alcohol (tetracycline HCl). Solubility of the tetracycline base is significantly reduced.

Storage requirements

  • Store in tight, light-resistant containers at room temperature. Avoid freezing the oral suspension.
  • After reconstituting the IM product, it is stable at room temperature for 12-24 h.

Uses

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Indications

  • A bacteriostatic antibiotic which inhibits the growth of many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, several rickettsiae, chlamydia, mycoplasma, spirochaetes (Lyme disease) and other microbes.
  • Tetracycline differs from oxytetracycline Oxytetracycline in its lipid solubility (oxytetracycline low solubility, tetracycline intermediate solubility) although this is unlikely to be of clinical relevance. Spectrum of activity of both antibiotics is very similar.
  • Ophthalmic tetracycline is the preferred agent for the treatment of chlamydia, mycoplasma or rickettsial eye infections.
  • Not useful to treat brain or other CNS infections.
  • Tetracyclines have antiinflammatory and immunomodulating effects.
  • Uncommonly used in guinea pigs. Doxycycline is preferred.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Penicillins
  • The bactericidal action of the penicillins may be inhibited by bacteriostatic antibiotics.
Drugs inhibiting absorption of orally administered tetracyclines
  • Antacids containing divalent or trivalent cations (magnesium, calcium, aluminium).
  • Iron.
  • Oral sodium bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate.
Digoxin
  • The bioavailability of digoxin may be increased by tetracyclines for months after their discontinuation. This may lead to digoxin Digoxin toxicity.
Anticoagulants
  • Plasma prothrombin activity may be decreased by tetracyclines and therefore patients on anticoagulant therapy may need a dose adjustment.
Methoxyflurane
  • Tetracyclines may increase the nephrotoxic effects of methoxyflurane.
Theophyllines
  • The gastrointestinal effects of tetracyclines may be increased.

with diagnostic tests

  • Plasma prothrombin activity may be decreased.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 1296.
  • Tennant B (1999) Small Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. BSAVA, Cheltenham.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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