Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Guinea Pigs

Pentobarbital

Synonym(s): Pentobarbitone, Nembutal, Dolethal, Euthasal, Euthalal, Lethobarb, Pentoject

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Pentobarbital.

Class of drug

  • Short-acting barbiturate.

Description

Chemical name

  • 5-ethyl-5-(1-methylbutyl) barbiturate.

Molecular formula

  • C11H18N2O3.

Molecular weight

  • 226.27.

Physical properties

  • Odorless, slightly bitter tasting, white, crystalline powder or granules.
  • Very soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Room temperature.
  • Not to use if precipitates occur.

Uses

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Indications

  • A short-acting barbiturate which may be used as an IV anesthetic (not recommended), as an anticonvulsant to treat acute seizures or for euthanasia.
  • It is still used as an anesthetic in laboratory situations, but it has been supplanted by other anesthetics in clinical situations.
  • Major active ingredient in several euthanasia solutions.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Drugs which may increase the effect of pentobarbitone
  • Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol.
  • Other central nervous system (CNS) depressants (antihistamines, narcotics, phenothiazines).
  • Valproic acid.
Drugs acted on by pentobarbitone (enhanced metabolism/decreased effect)
  • Beta-blockers, eg propranolol.
  • Corticosteroids.
  • Metronidazole Metronidazole.
  • Quinidine.
  • Theophylline.
Barbiturates
  • May enhance the effects of other anti-epileptics.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, United Kingdom. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley Blackwell. pp 1296.
  • Maguire S & Hawk C T (2012) Formulary. In: The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster and other Rodents. Eds: Suckow M, Stevens K & Wilson R. Academic Press, United States. pp 1193-1229.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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