Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Guinea Pigs

Isoflurane

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, Livia Benato

Introduction

Name

  • Isoflurane.

Class of drug

  • Inhalational anesthetic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-chloro-2-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,1-trifluoroethane.
  • 1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether.

Molecular formula

  • C3H2ClF5O.

Molecular weight

  • 184.49 g/mol.

Physical properties

  • Volatile halogenated ether.
  • Structural isomer of enflurane.
  • Pungent ethereal odor.
  • Non-flammable.
  • Non-explosive.

Storage requirements

  • <25°C/77°F.
  • Store away from direct heat and sunlight.
  • In original tight container.

Uses

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Indications

  • An inhalational anesthetic.
  • Maintenance of anesthesia for all types of surgery, irrespective of age.

Rapid recovery following painful, eg orthopedic procedures, necessitates appropriate and rapid attention to analgesia.

  • Assertations that isoflurane is safer than halothane in certain high risk cases should be discounted.

Induction via facemask using isoflurane in unpremedicated guiena pigs is no longer recommended.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Duration of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents is longer in isoflurane, compared with halothane-anesthetized animals.
  • Opioid agonists, benzodiazepines and nitrous oxide reduce the concentration of isoflurane required to achieve surgical anesthesia.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Allweiler S I (2016) How to improve anaesthesia and analgesia in small mammals. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice 19 (2), 361-377 PubMed.
  • Barter L S & Epstein S E (2013) Cardiopulmonary effects of three concentrations of isflurane with or without mechanical ventilation and supramaxial noxious stimulation in New Zealand White rabbis. Am J Vet Res 74 (10), 1274-1280 PubMed.
  • Seifen A B, Bray J P & Seifen E (1989)  Estimation of minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for halothane, enflurane and isoflurane in spontaneously breathing guinea pigs. Lab Anim Sci 39 (6), 579-581 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Ramsey I et al (2011) Isoflurane. In: BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 7th edn. Cheltenham, BSAVA.
  • Carpenter J W (2005) Rabbits. In: Exotic Animal Formulary.3rd edn. Elsevier Saunders. pp 409-444.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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