Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Guinea Pigs

Atropine

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Vella

Introduction

Name

  • Atropine sulfate.

Class of drug

  • Parasympatholytic agent.
  • Plant alkaloid used as an anticholinergic agent.

Description

Chemical name

  • Endo-(+/-)-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)benzeneacetic acid 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl ester.
  • 1-alpha H,5-alpha H-tropan-3-alpha-ol(+/-)-tropate (ester).

Molecular formula

  • C17H23NO3.

Physical properties

  • Clear, sterile solution.

Storage requirements

  • <25°C/77oF.
  • Protect from light.

Uses

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Indications

  • Correction of bradycardia and bradyarrhythmias.
  • Correction of hypotension caused by bradycardia.
  • To dilate pupils.
  • Used as antidote to organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.
  • In conjunction with anticholinesterase drugs during antagonism of neuromuscular blockade.

Administration

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Atropine should not be mixed with bromides, iodides, sodium bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate, alkalis or noradrenaline.
  • It is not recommended to combine atropine with alpha-2 agonists.
  • Atropine may aggravate some clinical signs seen with amitraz toxicity, leading to hypertension and gut stasis.
Drugs which may enhance the activity of atropine
  • Antihistamines.
  • Procainamide.
  • Quinidine.
  • Pethidine.
  • Benzodiazepines.
  • Phenothiazines.
The adverse effects of atropine may be potentiated by
  • Primidone.
  • Disopyramide.
  • Corticosteroids (prolonged use may increase intraocular pressure).
Drugs enhanced by atropine
  • Thiazide diuretics.
  • Sympathomimetics.
Drugs antagonized by atropine

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Shucard D W et al (1977) Atropine-induced bradycardia in the guinea pigs: dose-response. Res Common Them Pathol Pharmacol 16 (3), 401-410 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Carpenter J W (2013) Rodents. In:Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders. pp 476-516.
  • Ramsey I et al (2011) Atropine. In: BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 7th end. Cheltenham, BSAVA.
  • Gaertner D J et al (2008) Anesthesia and Analgesia for Laboratory Rodents. In: Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals. 2nd edn. Elsevier. pp 239-298
  • Longley L A (2008) Rodent anaesthesia. In: Anaesthesia of Exotic Pets. Elsevier Saunders. pp 59-84.
  • Lichtenberger M & Ko J (2007) Anaesthesia and Analgesia for Small Mammals and Birds. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 10 (2), 293-315.
  • Harkness J E & Wagner J E (1995) The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents. 4th edn. Williams & Wilkins

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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