Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Guinea Pigs

Uterine prolapse

Contributor(s): Cathy Johnson-Delaney, David Perpinan

Introduction

  • Cause: usually following parturition, uterus prolapses.
  • Signs: initially: pink or red, smooth tissue protruding from the vulva. If prolonged, tissue may become dark, bedding stuck to it, ulcerated.
  • Diagnosis: history, visual examination.
  • Treatment: gently irrigate, lubricate, dextrose may help to shrink it, supportive care, antibiotics, manual replacement, if treatment fails ovariohysterectomy.
  • Prognosis: good if insertion uncomplicated.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Laxity in muscles, uterine tissue that allows the prolapse during/following parturition.
  • May be more common if there was a large litter, as the fetuses mature.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Possibly due to a large number of fetuses which extend the uterine horns during gestation. It can also be seen anytime fetuses are large enough during delivery that cause dystocia and straining.
  • General health of the sow: condition of muscles.
  • The author has seen this condition following dystocia Dystocia
    • Sows on a poor diet may have hypovitaminosis C.
    • Sows may also exhaust calcium during a dystocia.

Pathophysiology

  • Uterus ligaments may have stretched excessively during parturition allowing for uterine tissue to be expelled out pelvic canal.

Timecourse

  • Likely immediately following parturition, but owner may not have noticed.

Epidemiology

  • Uterine prolapse in guinea pigs is a rare condition and has been poorly reported in the scientific literature. In a retrospective study of 1000 animals, none presented with this condition.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Minarikova A, Hauptmann K, Jeklova E et al (2015) Diseases in pet guinea pigs: a retrospective study in 1000 animals. Vet Rec 177 (8) PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hawkins M G & Bishop C R (2012) Disease Problems of Guinea Pigs. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier. pp 295-310.


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