ISSN 2398-2985      

Urolithiasis

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Urinary calculi, Urinary stones, Bladder stones


Introduction

  • Cause: calculi located in the urinary system: kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra.
  • Signs: dependent on size of the calculi and location.
  • Diagnosis: imaging confirming presence of calculi. Urinalysis may support infection, inflammation also within urinary tract.
  • Treatment: alleviate pain and dehydration, antibiotic treatment, supportive care, fluid therapy, alter diet, surgery.
  • Prognosis: guarded as uroliths frequently reoccur.
Print off the Owner factsheet on Urolithiasis, Kidney problems and Common health problems to give to your clients.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Exact cause is unclear.
  • Speculated that normal alkalinity and high mineral content favors calculi formation.
  • Urinary tract bacterial infections are frequently associated with calculi although it is unclear if they play a role in the formation of a stone Cystitis.
  • Calcium carbonate is the most common composition as determined by recent studies.
  • Older literature frequently states that calcium oxalate calculi is most common.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Unknown.

Specific

  • More likely to be on a diet containing high concentrations of calcium (alfalfa, alfalfa-based pellets).

Pathophysiology

  • Calculi most commonly found in the bladder or urethra.
  • Calculi have been found in kidneys, ureters, vagina, or in the seminal vesicles in males.
  • Bacteria found in urine associated with calculi:
    • E. coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus spp, Corynebacterium renale, Facklamia spp separately.
    • Mixed cultures of C. renale, Streptococcus bovis/equinus group and Staphylococcus spp documented.
  • Bacteria cultured directly from calculi:
    • Steptococcus viridans, Proteus mirablis, and mixed growth with S. viridans, Staphylococcus spp, E. coli or Enterococcus spp.
  • Location of the calculi may cause obstruction within the urinary tract; this in turn may lead to hydroureter, hydronephrosis. There may be complete blockage of urine flow in males with urethral obstruction.
  • The calculi may cause irritation/damage to the urinary tract mucosa contributing to hematuria Hematuria and potential for bacterial infection (or further infection).

Timecourse

  • Unknown for calculi formation.
  • Rapid onset of clinical signs if there is obstruction.

Epidemiology

  • There appears to be a familial relationship: it has been seen in sequential generations of sows (grandmother, mother, daughter all developing stones).

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wenger S & Hatt J-M (2015) Transurethral cystoscopy and endoscopic urolith removal in female guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 18 (3), 359-367 PubMed.
  • Eshar D, Lee-Chow B & Chalmers H J (2013) Ultrasound-guided percutaneous antegrade hydropropulsion to relieve ureteral obstruction in a pet guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). Can Vet J 54 (12), 1142-1145 PubMed.
  • Hawkins M G, Ruby A L, Drazenovich T L & Westropp J L (2009) Composition and characteristics of urinary calculi from guinea pigs. JAVMA 234 (2), 214-220 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hawkins M G & Bishop C R (2012) Disease Problems of Guinea Pigs. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier. pp 295-310.
  • Johnson-Delaney C A (2010) Guinea Pigs, Chinchillas, Degus and Duprasi. In: BSAVA Manual of Exotic Pets. 5th edn. Eds: Meredith A & Johnson-Delaney C. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp 28-62.

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