Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Guinea Pigs

Hepatic lipidosis

Synonym(s): Steatosis, Fatty liver

Contributor(s): Cathy Johnson-Delaney, Anna Meredith

Introduction

  • Cause: alteration in hepatic function with lipid deposition.
  • Signs: anorexia, depression, death.
  • Diagnosis: history, blood biochemistry, alteration of acid/base balance, urinalysis, ultrasonography, liver biopsy.
  • Treatment: immediate nutritional support, fluid therapy, vitamin C supplementation.
  • Prognosis: guarded to poor once condition exists. 

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Anorexia Anorexia due to any cause; sometimes for as little as 12 h duration.
  • More common in obese guinea pigs.
  • May also see if pregnant, lactating, pregnancy toxemia Pregnancy toxemia.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Obesity.

Specific

  • Existing disease conditions such as dental disease which cause anorexia.
  • Pregnancy or lactating with increased caloric demands not being met.

Pathophysiology

  • Lack of nutrients/energy being ingested, leading to changes in liver function.
  • Mobilization of free fatty acids.
  • Fat deposition/infiltration of liver tissue.
  • Ketoacidosis develops, contributing to further depression and anorexia.
  • Obese animals more at risk.

Timecourse

  • Can begin as early as 12 h after cessation of food intake.
  • Can be days to weeks.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Hawkins M G & Bishop C R (2012) Disease Problems of Guinea Pigs. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier. pp 295-310.


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