Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Laparotomy

Contributor(s): Agata Witkowska, David Perpinan

Introduction

  • Common surgical procedure performed for access to the abdominal cavity and its organs.
  • Performed via a midline incision.

Uses

There are various uses for midline laparotomy in ferrets, below are some of the most common reasons for this surgery.
  • Neutering: ovariectomy/ovariohysterectomy/removal of retained testicles.
  • Exploratory: upon discovery of palpable abnormalities, where other options unavailable or prohibited, eg cost. Allows evaluation and possible treatment via excision or diagnostic tests through sample collection.
  • Gastrointestinal surgery, eg foreign body removal Gastrotomy/gastrectomy Enterotomy/enterectomy.
  • Sample collection, eg biopsy of the liver.
  • Urogenital access and surgery, eg cystotomy , access to the prostate (prostatic cysts).
  • Organ removal, eg splenectomy, adrenalectomy.
  • Partial pancreatectomy in cases of insulinomas Insulinoma.

Advantages

  • Fast and easy access to abdominal organs requiring minimal surgical experience.
  • Allows access to thoracic organs if incision extended through diaphragm.
  • Easy biopsy collection.
  • Allows for sample collection and possible surgery at the same time.

Disadvantages

  • Invasive procedure.
  • Post-operative complications, eg ileus, reduction of intestinal diameter post-enterotomy/enterectomy, pancreatitis due to pancreatic surgery.
  • Risk of anesthesia.
  • Risk of abdominal surgery, eg infection, tissue adhesions.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Good to guarded.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Miwa Y & Sladky K (2016) Small mammals: common surgical procedures of rodents, ferrets, hedgehogs, and sugar gliders. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 19 (1), 205-244 PubMed.
  • Martinez A, Martinez J, Burballa A & Martorell J (2011) Spontaneous thecoma in a spayed pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with alopecia and swollen vulva. J Exotic Pet Med 20 (4), pp 308-312 SciDirect.
  •  Beeber N L (2000) Abdominal surgery in ferrets. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 3 (3), 647-662 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Johnson-Delaney A (2017) Common Surgical Procedures. In: Ferret Medicine and Surgery. CRC Press, USA. pp 381-420.
  • Bojrab M J, Waldron D R, Toombs J P & Monnet E (2014) Surgical Techniques in Small Exotic Animals. In: Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery. 5th edn. Scopus, USA. pp 690-691.
  • Quesenberry K A & J W Carpenter (2012) Soft Tissue Surgery. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 373-391.
  • Oglesbee B L (2011) Ferrets. In: Blackwell’s Five-Minute Veterinary Consult: Small Mammal. Wiley Blackwell, UK. pp 221.
  • Keeble E & Meredith A (2009) Ferrets: Common Surgical Procedures. In: BSAVA Manual of Rodents and Ferrets. BSAVA, UK. pp 254-264.
  • Orcutt C J (2005) Fluid Therapy in Small Mammals. In: Proc North American Veterinary Conference. pp 1366-1368. Website: www.ivis.org.


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