Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Gastrotomy / gastrectomy

Contributor(s): Agata Witkowska, David Perpinan

Introduction

  • The most common indications for gastrotomy in exotic species includes foreign body ingestion Gastrointestinal foreign bodies, trichobezoars Hair balls, neoplasia Gastrointestinal neoplasia and gastric biopsy Biopsy overview.
  • Foreign body ingestion is common in ferrets:
    • This includes things such as pieces of toys or bones.
    • This happens most commonly in juveniles.
  • Trichobezoars have also been reported in older individuals.
  • Acute and chronic anorexia often leads to a negative energy balance in many exotic species with a secondary hepatic lipidosis Hepatic lipidosis.
  • Ulceration and necrosis of the stomach may occur, and gastrectomy may be indicated in some patients if a perforation is suspected on laparotomy Laparotomy.
  • Care needs to be taken when handling the gastrointestinal tract in many exotic species as the organ wall is often very thin, particularly when stretched due to bloat (cecum, stomach).
  • To avoid iatrogenic tissue trauma during gastrotomy it can be helpful to have an assistant holding the relevant tissues instead.

Uses

  • Foreign body removal.
  • Neoplasia.
  • Gastric biopsy.

Advantages

  • Gastrotomy and gastrectomy allow for direct visualization of the gastrointestinal tract and possible ulceration.
  • Biopsies of the gastric lining can be collected and removal of foreign bodies as well as biopsies and resection of necrotic lining performed.

Disadvantages

  • Invasive procedure requiring laparotomy Laparotomy.

Requirements

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Preparation

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Procedure

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Aftercare

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prognosis

  • Gastrotomy: good to guarded.
  • Gastrectomy: guarded.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Miwa Y & Sladky K (2016) Small mammals: common surgical procedures of rodents, ferrets, hedgehogs, and sugar gliders. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 19 (1), 205-244 PubMed.
  • Mullen H S (2000) Nonreproductive surgery in small mammals. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Prac 3 (3), 629-645 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Mitchell M & Tully T N (2016) Gastrointestinal System. In: Current Therapy in Exotic Pet Practice. Elsevier, USA. pp 221-276.
  • Bojrab M J, Waldron D R, Toombs J P & Monnet E (2014) Surgical Techniques in Small Exotic Animals. In: Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery. 5th edn. Scopus, USA. pp. 690-691.
  • Quesenberry K A & J W Carpenter (2012) Gastrointestinal Diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 27-45.
  • Quesenberry K A & J W Carpenter (2012) Soft Tissue Surgery. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 373-391.
  • Keeble E & Meredith A (2009) Ferrets: Common Surgical Procedures. In: BSAVA Manual of Rodents and Ferrets. BSAVA, UK. pp 254-264.
  • Orcutt C J (2005) Fluid Therapy in Small Mammals. In: Proc North American Veterinary Conference. pp 1366-1368. Website: www.ivis.org.


ADDED