ISSN 2398-2985      

Urinalysis: glucose

4ferrets

Synonym(s): Glycosuria


Overview

  • Trace amounts of glucose can be seen in the urine of clinically normal ferrets.
  • Glucosuria occurs when blood glucose concentration exceeds renal threshold. Thus, it may occur when the blood concentration is elevated and/or renal threshold is reduced.
  • Glucosuria may be associated with hyperglycemia, but is not always so.
  • Several physiological factors can increase blood glucose levels and cause glucosuria in ferrets. Examples of events which can result in glucosuria include stress resulting from handling, transport or hospitalization, chronic stresses such a pain, administration of glucose-containing fluids may result in glucosuria as well as diet rich in carbohydrates.
  • Conditions which may be associated with glucosuria in ferrets may include anorexia, hepatic lipidosis Hepatic lipidosis and ketosis, diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus (rare), pregnancy.

Sampling

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Tests

Methodologies

  • Chemical reagent dipsticks Urinalysis: dipstick analysis are used to semi-quantitatively evaluate glucose in urine.
  • Result in negative, or positive in range 1+ to 4+.

Availability

  • Urine test strips are cheap and readily available.

Validity

Predictive value

  • In positive cases, further investigation is required to identify etiology.

Technique (intrinsic) limitations

  • Optimal sampling technique for urine analysis is cystocentesis. However, this requires heavy sedation or anesthesia.
  • Consider significance of result in conjunction with urine specific gravity Urinalysis: specific gravity.
  • Note also that high levels of glucosuria (over 3+) may result in a false elevation of urine specific gravity.

Technician (extrinsic) limitations

  • Care should be taken when collecting the urine sample not to stress the ferret during handling, as this may result in artefactual glucosuria.
  • Interpret test strip at specified time interval.

Result Data

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Duhamelle A, Langlois I & Desmarchelier M (2015) Transient diabetes mellitus in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Can Vet J 56 (7), 737-740 PubMed.
  • Carpenter J W & Novilla M N (1977) Diabetes mellitus in a black-footed ferret. JAVMA 171 (9), 890-3 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Lennox A (2009) Ferrets: Clinical pathology. In: BSAVA Manual of Ferrets and Rodents. Eds: Keeble E & Meredith A. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, UK. pp 230-236
  • Schoemaker N J (2009) Ferrets: endocrine and neoplastic diseases. In: BSAVA Manual of Ferrets and Rodents. Eds: Keeble E & Meredith A. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, UK. pp 320-329

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