ISSN 2398-2985      

Urinalysis: bilirubin

4ferrets

Overview

  • Only conjugated bilirubin appears in urine (unconjugated is albumin bound).
  • Bilirubin blood levels are often indicative of hepatocellular and biliary system function. Kidneys can excrete large amounts and elevations usually indicative of biliary obstruction or severe renal compromise.

Sampling

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Tests

Methodologies

  • Mix the urine specimen thoroughly.
  • Pipette urine onto test pads.
  • Hold horizontally to avoid run-off between pads.
  • Read test at correct interval.
  • Sediment examination may reveal bilirubin crystals (rare).

Availability

  • All veterinary practices.
  • External laboratories.

Result Data

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource
  • Lloyd M (2002) Veterinary care of ferrets: 1. Clinical examination and routine procedures. In Practice 24 (2), 90-95

Other sources of information

  • Chitty J (2009) Ferrets: physical examination and emergency care. In: BSAVA Manual of Ferrets and Rodents. Eds: Keeble E & Meredith A. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, UK. pp 205-218.
  • Lennox A (2009) Ferrets: Clinical pathology. In: BSAVA Manual of Ferrets and Rodents. Eds: Keeble E & Meredith A. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, UK. pp 230-236

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