Exotis ISSN 2398-2985



Synonym(s): Complete blood count (CBC), Hemogram

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan


  • Study of blood cells.
  • Red cells via:
    • Packed cell volume (PCV) Hematology: packed cell volume.
    • Red blood cell (RBC) count Hematology: red blood cell count.
    • Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration Hematology: hemoglobin concentration.
    • RBC indices: MCV (mean cell volume or mean corpuscular volume), MCH (mean cell hemoglobin or mean corpuscular hemoglobin) and MCHC (mean cell hemoglobin concentration or mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration).
    • Reticulocyte count (either on routine request or when evidence of anemia is present).
  • White cells via:
    • Leukocyte (WBC) count Hematology: leukocyte (WBC).
    • Differential WBC count: relative amounts of various WBC cells present.
  • Platelet count and morphology Hematology: platelet count.
  • Tests of clotting function (values in seconds):
    • Whole blood clotting time (WBCT).
    • Prothrombin time (PT).
    • Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT).


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  • Manual: evaluation of blood smears.
  • Mechanical: electronic cell counters for most determinations.


  • Widely available at commercial laboratories.
  • Blood smears can be examined in practice.

Result Data

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Further Reading


Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hein J, Spreyer F, Sauter-Louis C et al (2012) Reference ranges for laboratory parameters in ferrets. Vet Rec 171, 218 PubMed.
  • Takahashi S, Hirai N, Shirai M et al (2011) Comparison of the blood coagulation profiles of ferrets and rats. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 73 (7), 953-956 PubMed.
  • Benson K G, Paul-Murphy J, Hart A P et al (2008) Coagulation values in normal ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) using selected methods and reagents. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 37 (3), 286-288 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Mayer J & Donnelly T M (2013) Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets. Elsevier, USA. pp 752.
  • Campbell T W & Ellis C K (2007) Avian and Exotic Hematology and Cytology. 3rd edn. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-0813818115.
  • Lewis J H (1996) Comparative Hemostasis in Vertebrates. Plenum Press, New York, USA.