Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Tramadol

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Tramadol hydrochloride.

Class of drug

  • Analgesic drug with both an opioid and non-opioid mediated mechanisms of analgesic action.

Description

Chemical name

  • (±) cis-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl) cyclohexanol hydrochloride.

Molecular formula

  • C16H26ClNO2.

Molecular weight

  • 299.8

Physical properties

  • White crystalline powder.
  • Freely soluble in water or alcohol.
  • Slightly soluble in acetone.

Storage requirements

  • Tramadol tablets should be stored at room temperature in tight, light-resistant containers.
  • Tramadol is a Schedule 3 Controlled Drug in the UK and a similar status may applty in other countries.
Be aware of the potential for abuse of the drug by humans.

Uses

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Indications

  • Mild to moderate acute pain.
  • Adjunctive analgesic agent in management of chronic pain from cancer or osteoarthritis.
  • When used in combination with NSAIDs, it may be particularly useful for chronic pain conditions.
  • It may be useful for epidural anesthesia, but reports of this use are lacking in ferrets.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Because of tramadols monoamine reuptake inhibition, it should not be given with tri-cyclic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors or monoamine oxidase inhibitors due to the risk of serotonin syndrome (increased heart rate, pupil dilation, twitching and hyperreflexia) and potential for seizures.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Sinclair K M, Eckstrand C, Moore P F et al (2016) Epitheliotropic gastrointestinal T-cell lymphoma with concurrent insulinoma and adrenocortical carcinoma in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). J Exotic Pet Med 25 (1), 34-43 VetMedResource.
  • Giral M, Garcia-Olmo DC, Gomez-Juarez M et al (2014) Anaesthetic effects in the ferret of alfaxalone alone and in combination with medetomidine or tramadol: a pilot study. Lab Anim 48 (4), 313-320 PubMed.
  • Pignon C, Vallefuoco R, Krumeich N et al (2014) Surgical repair of a pelvic fracture in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo). J Exotic Pet Med 23 (1), 96-100 VetMedResource.
  • Johnston M S (2005) Clinical approaches to analgesia in ferrets and rabbits. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 14 (4), 229-235 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 1296.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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