Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Tiletamine/zolazepam

Synonym(s): Telazol, Zoletial

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Tiletamine/zolazepam combination.
    Only available as 1:1 combinations - Telazol® (US) and Zoletial® (Europe).

Class of drug

  • Tiletamine - phencylidine derivative; dissociative anesthetic; NMDA-receptor antagonist.
  • Zolazepam - benzodiazepine; muscle relaxant; modulation of chloride ion transport following binding of the GABAA receptor.

Description

Chemical name

  • Tiletamine: 2-ethylamino-2-2(2-thienyl) cyclohexanone.
  • Zolazepam: 4-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,3,8-trimethyl-6,8-dihydrophyrazolo[3,4-e][1,4]diazepin-7(1H)-one.
  • Tilemamine + zolazepam: 2-(ethylamino)-2-thiophen-2-ylcyclohexan-1-one;4-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,3,8-trimethyl-6H-pyrazolo[3,4-e][1,4]diazepin-7-one;dihydrochloride

Molecular formula

  • Tiletamine - C12H17NOS.
  • Zolazepam - C15H15FN4O.
  • Tiletamine + zolazepam: C27H34Cl2FN5O2S.

Molecular weight

  • Tiletamine: 223.34.
  • Zolazepam: 286.304.
  • Tiletamine + zolazepam: 582.56.

Physical properties

  • Yellow, crystalline freeze dried solid.
  • 571 mg active drug as a 1:1 ratio per vial. Final concentration after dilution is 100 mg/mL.

Storage requirements

  • Store in a cool place below 30°C/86°F.
  • Once reconstituted can be kept at 4°C/39.2°F for 8 days with retention of 90% efficacy (Zoletil®) or 14 days if refrigerated.

Uses

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Indications

  • Restraint.
  • Sedation.
  • Anesthesia.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Reduce dose when used with gas anesthetics, barbiturates and phenotiazines.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Ko J C H, Nicklin C F, Montgomery T et al (1998) Comparison of anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine-butorphanol in ferrets. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 34 (2), 164-174.
  • Payton A J & Pick J R (1989) Evaluation of a combination of tiletamine and zolazepam as an anesthetic for ferrets. Lab Anim Sci 39 (3), 243-246.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 1296.
  • Fox J G & Marini R P (2014) Eds Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. 3rd edn. Wiley Blackwell, USA. pp 835.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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