ISSN 2398-2985      

Tetracycline

4ferrets

Introduction

Name

  • Tetracycline.
  • Tetracycline HCl.

Class of drug

  • Tetracycline antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • (4S,4aS,5aS,6S,12aR)-4-(dimethylamino)-1,6,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-3,12-dioxo-4,4a,5,5a-tetrahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide.

Molecular formula

  • C22H24N2O8.

Molecular weight

  • 444.44.

Physical properties

  • Moderately hygroscopic, yellow, crystalline powder.
  • Tetracycline HCL is soluble in water up to 100 mg/mL and in alcohol up to 10 mg/mL.
  • However, tetracycline paste has a solubility of 0.4 mg/mL in water and 20 mg/mL in alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.
  • Avoid excessive exposure to heat or light - oxidized drug is nephrotoxic.
  • After reconstituting the IM product, it may be stored at room temperature but should be used within 24 h.

Uses

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Indications

  • Rarely used in ferrets.
  • A bacteriostatic antibiotic which inhibits the growth of many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, mycoplasma, Ehrlichiae, Rickettsia spp, Borrelia (Lyme disease), Leptospiuria, Brucella and other microbes.
  • Tetracycline differs from oxytetracycline in its lipid solubility (oxytetracycline low solubility, tetracycline intermediate solubility) although this is unlikely to be of clinical relevance.
  • Ophthalmic tetracycline is the preferred agent for the treatment of chlamydia, mycoplasma or rickettsial eye infections.
  • Tetracycline is also used to cause pleurodesis.
  • Other tetracyclines, eg doxycycline Doxycycline, are more commonly used.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Penicillins
  • The bactericidal action of the penicillins may be inhibited by bacteriostatic antibiotics.
Drugs inhibiting absorption of orally administered tetracyclines
  • Antacids containing divalent or trivalent cations (magnesium, calcium, aluminum).
  • Iron.
  • Oral sodium bicarbonate.
Digoxin
  • The bioavailability of digoxin may be increased by tetracyclines for months after their discontinuation. This may lead to digoxin toxicity.
Anticoagulants
  • Plasma prothrombin activity may be decreased by tetracyclines and therefore patients on anticoagulant therapy may need a dose adjustment.
Methoxyflurane
  • Tetracyclines may increase the nephrotoxic effects of methoxyflurane.
Theophyllines
  • The gastrointestinal (GI) effects of tetracyclines may be increased.

with diagnostic tests

  • Plasma prothrombin activity may be decreased.
  • Urine glucose can be false-positive if using the cupric sulfate method of determination.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Johnson-Delaney C A (2017) Ferret Medicine and Surgery. CRC Press, USA. pp 514.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 1296.
  • Tennant B (1999) Small Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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