ISSN 2398-2985      

Propranolol

4ferrets

Introduction

Name

  • Propranolol.

Class of drug

  • Beta-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptor antagonist.

Description

Chemical name

  • 1-naphthalen-1-yloxy-3-(propan-2-ylamino)propan-2-ol

Moleuclar formula

  • C16H21NO2.

Molecular weight

  • 259.34.

Physical properties

  • Bitter tasting, odorless, white to almost white powder.
  • One gram is soluble in 20 mL of water or alcohol. ​

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature and protected from light.

Uses

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Indications

  • Management of cardiac arrhythmias (sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation or flutter, supraventricular tachycardia, premature ventricular depolarization), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or obstructive heart disease.
  • Improves cardiac performance in animals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  • May be used to control the pulse rate in patients with pheochromocytoma; always use with phenoxybenzamine Phenoxybenzamine for this indication, as beta-blockade without concurrent alpha-blockade may lead to a hypertensive crisis.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Sympathomimetics, eg epinephrine, phenylpropanolamine, terbutaline
  • The beta-effects may be blocked by propranolol.
  • The unopposed alpha effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine may result in severe hypertension and a decreased heart rate.
Drugs enhancing the hypotensive effect of propranolol
  • Anesthetic agents (those that depress myocardial activity).
  • Antihypertensive drugs (eg hydralazine, prazosin).
  • Diazepam.
  • Diuretics.
  • Other anti-arrhythmics.
Calcium channel blockers, eg diltiazem, verapamil
  • There is an increased risk of bradycardia, severe hypotension, heart failure and AV block.
Thyroid hormones
  • The metabolism of propranolol is decreased in hyperthyroid cats, so duration of effect may be prolonged.
Methimazole
  • The dose of propranolol may need to be decreased when initiating methimazole therapy.
Muscle relaxants, eg suxamethonium, tubocurarine
  • Propranolol enhances the effects.
Phenobarbitone, phenytoin or rifampin
  • Hepatic enzyme induction by these drugs may increase the metabolism of propranolol.
Theophylline
  • The bronchodilatory effects may be blocked by propranolol.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed. BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley Blackwell. pp 1296.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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