ISSN 2398-2985      

Morphine

4ferrets

Introduction

Name

  • Morphine.

Class of drug

  • Opioid analgesic.
  • Pure agonist.

Description

Chemical name

  • (5α,6α)-7,8-didehydro- 4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol.

Molecular formula

  • C17H19NO3.

Molecular weight

  • 285.34.

Physical properties

  • White, odorless crystals.
  • Insoluble in chloroform or ether.
  • One gram is soluble in 16 mL of water (62.5 mg/mL) and 570 mL of alcohol (1.75 mg/mL).

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature and protected from light.
  • Must be stored in a locked safe and its use recorded in a logbook.

Uses

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Indications

  • A narcotic analgesic used primarily as a pre-anesthetic agent.
  • Peri-operative and severe traumatic pain relief.
  • Moderate to severe, acute pain.
  • Epidural analgesia.
  • Not commonly used systemically: hydromorphone or fentanyl are more commonly used for this purpose.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

CNS depressants (anesthetics, antihistamines, barbiturates, phenothiazines, tranquilizers)
  • Enhanced central nervous system (CNS) or respiratory depression may occur.
Warfarin
  • Opiates may potentiate anticoagulant activity.

with diagnostic tests

Opiates can increase plasma amylase or lipase
  • As narcotic analgesics can increase biliary tract pressure, levels may be increased for up to 24 h after drug administration.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Heard D J (1993) Principles and techniques of anaesthesia and analgesia for exotic practice. Vet Clin North Am: Exotic Anim Pract 23, 1301-1327 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed. BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. ISBN: 1905319827.
  • Fox J G & Marini R P (2014) Eds. Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. 3rd edn. Wiley Blackwell, USA. pp 835.
  • Plumb D C (2008) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 6th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 1120.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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