Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Gentamicin

Synonym(s): Gentamicin sulphate, Garasol, Gentaject, Garacin, Clinagel Vet, Easotic, Otomax, Tiacil

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Gentamicin.

Class of drug

  • Aminoglycoside antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-[4,6-diamino-3-[3-amino-6-[1-(methylamino)ethyl]oxan-2-yl]oxy-2-hydroxycyclohexyl]oxy-5-methyl-4-(methylamino)oxane-3,5-diol.

Molecular formula

  • C21H43N5O7.

Molecular weight

  • 477.59.

Physical properties

  • White to buff powder that is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Injection and oral solutions should be stored at room temperature.
  • Freezing or temperatures above 40°C/104°F should be avoided.

Uses

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Indications

  • The aminoglycosides as a class are more active against gram-negative bacteria, but some staphylococcal and streptococcal (fecalis) species are sensitive.
  • All obligate anaerobic bacteria and many hemolytic streptococci are resistant.
  • When used for 'blind' therapy of undiagnosed serious infections gentamicin is usually given in conjunction with a penicillin and/or metronidazole.
  • Aminoglycosides are more active in an alkaline environment.
  • Their use in domestic animals is limited by nephrotoxicity and more rarely, ototoxicity and neuromuscular blockade. Usually reserved to treat serious gram-negative infections.
  • Microbial resistance is a concern, although many bacteria resistant to gentamicin may be susceptible to amikacin.
    Ineffective in low oxygen sites, eg abscesses, exudates, because oxygen rich environment is required to be effective

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Nephrotoxic, ototoxic or neurotoxic agents, eg amphotericin B, cisplatin, frusemide, methoxyflurane
  • Increased risk of toxicity.
Ticarcilin
  • Synergism may occur.
Non-depolarizing muscle relaxants (atracurium, pancuronium, tubocurarine, vecuronium)
  • May be enhanced by aminoglycosides.

with diagnostic tests

  • Gentamicin serum concentrations may be falsely decrease if the patient has been treated with beta-lactams or if the serum has been stored prior analysis.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Johnson-Delaney C A (2017) Ferret Medicine and Surgery. CRC Press, USA. pp 514.
  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, United Kingdom. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley Blackwell. pp 1296.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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