Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Enalapril

Synonym(s): Enacard

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Enalapril maleate.

Class of drug

  • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.

Description

Chemical name

  • (S)-1-[N(1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenylpropyl]-L-alanyl]-L-proline, (Z)-2-butenedioate salt.

Molecular formula

  • C24H32N2O9

Molecular weight

  • 492.53.

Physical properties

  • White/off-white crystalline powder.
  • 25 mg of enalapril are soluble in 1 mL of water.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.

Uses

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Indications

  • Treatment of congestive heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy.
  • Improves the quality of life of animals with heart failure when combined with furosemide Furosemide.
  • Treatment of hypertension.
  • May be of benefit in the treatment of chronic renal insufficiency, especially protein-losing nephropathies, although the use of ACE inhibitors for renal failure in ferrets has not been fully validated. Causes efferent arteriolar dilation in the kidney, leading to reduced glomerular filtration pressure which may reduce proteinuria. ​

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • It can be administered in combination with diuretics and the inodilator pimobendan.
  • Combination drug therapy using enalapril with furosemide and/or pimobendan may have hypotensive effects. Decrease dose of furosemide by 25-50% when adding enalapril.
  • Hyperkalemia can occur with concomitant treatment with potassium-sparing diuretics, such as spironolactone.
  • When used in combination with NSAIDs, there may be an increased risk of nephrotoxicity.
  • Anesthetics and sedative drugs may exacerbate hypotensive effects.
  • Increased risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with antidiabetic agents.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Healthy J J (2009) Cardiovascular Anatomy, Physiology and Disease of Rodents and Small Exotics Mammals. Vet Clin N Am Exot An Pract 12 (1), 99-113 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, Quedgeley, Gloucester, UK. pp 338.
  • Fox J G & Marini R P (2014) Eds Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. 3rd ed. Wiley Blackwell, USA. pp 835.
  • Ramsey I et al (2011) Enalapril. In: BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 7th edn. Cheltenham, BSAVA, UK.
  • Plumb D C (2008) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 6th edn. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA. pp 1120.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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