Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Doxorubicin

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Doxorubicin.

Class of drug

  • Cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic.
  • Antineoplastic.

Description

Chemical name

  • (7S,9S)-7-[(2R,4S,5S,6S)-4-amino-5-hydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy-6,9,11-trihydroxy-9-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-4-methoxy-8,10-dihydro-7H-tetracene-5,12-dione

Molecular formula

  • C27H29NO11.

Molecular weight

  • 543.52.

Physical properties

  • Doxorubicin HCl occurs as a lyophilized, red-orange powder.
  • Freely soluble in water, slightly soluble in normal saline, and very slightly soluble in alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Lyophilized powder for injection should be stored in a dry place and away from direct sunlight.
    • After reconstitution, it is stable for 24 h at room temperature and for 48 h if refrigerated (according to manufacturer).
    • However, one study reported stability for 6 months when a solution of 2 mg/mL was refrigerated and at least for 1 month when frozen at -20°C/-4°F.
  • The commercially available solution for injection is stable for 18 months when stored in the refrigerator and protected from light.
  • The manufacturer states that after reconstitution, the multi-dose vials may be stored for up to 7 days at room temperature and up to 15 days in the refrigerator.

Uses

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Indications

  • Used to treat a variety of lymphomas, leukemias, sarcomas and carcinomas.
  • It may be used alone or in combination with other antineoplastic therapies, such as radiation therapy or vincristine.
  • Although it possesses antimicrobial properties, doxorubicin’s cytotoxic effects preclude its use to treat infections.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Digoxin
  • Reduction in serum digoxin levels.
Barbiturate
  • Increases plasma clearance of doxorubicin.
Cyclophosphamide
  • Increases risk of cardiotoxicity and cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis.
Heparin
  • Forms precipitate with Doxorubicin.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, Quedgeley, Gloucester, UK. pp 338.
  • Fox J G & Marini R P (2014) Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. 3rd edn. Wiley Blackwell, USA. pp 835.
  • Mayer J & Donnelly T M (2013) Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets. Elsevier, USA. pp 752.
  • Plumb D C (2008) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 6th edn. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA. pp 1120.
  • Fischer D S, Knobf M Tet al (2003) The Cancer Chemotherapy Handbook. 6th edn. Mosby, Philadelphia, PA, USA. pp 109-111.
  • Tennant B (1999) Small Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. BSAVA, Cheltenham, UK.
  • Fraizier D L & Hahn K A (1995) Commonly Used Drugs. In: Cancer Chemotherapy A Veterinary Handbook. Eds: Hahn K A & Richardson R C. Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, USA. pp 102-103.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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