ISSN 2398-2985      

Diazepam

4ferrets

Introduction

Name

  • Diazepam.

Class of drug

  • Benzodiazepine.

Description

Chemical name

  • 7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one.

Molecular formula

  • C16H13ClN2O.

Molecular weight

  • 284.74.

Physical properties

  • White to yellow, practically odorless, crystalline powder.
  • One gram is soluble in 333 mL of water and 25 mL of alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.
  • The injectable solution should not be frozen and should be protected from light.
  • The oral forms should be kept in tight containers and protected from light.
  • It may adsorb plastic, so it should no be stored drawn up into plastic syringes.

Uses

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Indications

  • Premedicant.
  • Anticonvulsant.
  • Anxiolytic.
  • Muscle relaxant, urethral muscle spasm.
  • Anesthesia.
  • Used in combination with opioids for pre-anesthetic medication in the critically ill patient.It is now uncommonly used in anesthetic protocols. The benzodiazepine midazolam is preferred for this purpose due to a much better intramuscular absorption.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Cimetidine, erythromycin, and omeprazole
  • These drugs inhibit the metabolism of diazepam and may cause increased plasma concentrations.
Beta-1 antagonists
  • Duration of action of diazepam may be prolonged.
  • Hypotension may be enhanced if diazepam is used in conjunction with propranolol.
Antihistamines or opioid analgesics
  • Sedative effect may be enhanced.
Digoxin
  • The effects of digoxin may be increased.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed. Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D C (2008) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 6th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 1120.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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