Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Butorphanol

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Butorphanol.

Class of drug

  • Opioid analgesic.
  • Partial agonist/antagonist.
  • Agonist at kappa and sigma and antagonist at mu receptors.

Description

Chemical name

  • (4bR,8aR,9S)-11-(cyclobutylmethyl)-6,7,8,8a,9,10-hexahydro-5H-9,4b-(epiminoethano)phenanthrene-3,8a-diol.

Molecular formula

  • C21H29NO2.

Molecular weight

  • 327.47.

Physical properties

  • White, crystalline powder.
  • Sparingly soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature and protected from light.
  • Do not freeze.

Uses

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Indications

  • Analgesic.
  • Preanesthetic.
  • It has antiemetic and antitussive effects, but it is seldom used in ferrets for these effects.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • The depressant activity of butorphanol may be potentiated by barbiturate anesthetics, phenothiazines and tranquilizers.
  • Concomitant use with metoclopramide may lead to antagonism as each drug has opposing effects on gastrointestinal motility. In practice this is probably of little clinical significance.
  • May potentiate sedative and ventilatory depressant effects of other CNS depressants, including local anesthetics.
  • Azolic antifungals and eyrthromycin: increase plasma butorphanol.
  • Anticonvulsants and rifampin: decrease plasma butorphanol.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Ramsey I (2014) BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 8th edn. BSAVA. ISBN: 9781905319657.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (2013) Veterinary Medicines Guidance Notes. Website: www.gov.uk.
  • Plumb D C (2008) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 6th edn. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA. pp 1120.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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