ISSN 2398-2985      

Azithromycin

4ferrets

Introduction

Name

  • Azithromycin.

Class of drug

  • Broad spectrum macrolide antibiotic (semisynthetic azolide macrolide).

Description

Chemical name

  • (2R,3S,4R,5R,8R,10R,11R,12S,13S,14R)-11-[(2S,3R,4S,6R)-4-(dimethylamino)-3-hydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy-2-ethyl-3,4,10-trihydroxy-13-[(2R,4R,5S,6S)-5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-4,6-dimethyloxan-2-yl]oxy-3,5,6,8,10,12,14-heptamethyl-1-oxa-6-azacyclopentadecan-15-one.

Molecular formula

  • C38H72N2O12.

Molecular weight

  • 748.99.

Physical properties

  • White, crystalline powder.
  • It can be diluted in water at up to 39 mg/mL.

Storage requirements

  • Store at temperatures less than 30°C/86°F.
  • Reconstituted product for oral suspension can be stored up to 10 days.
  • Reconstituted injectable solutions are stable for 24 h.

Uses

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Indications

  • As broad spectrum antibacterial for consideration when safer alternatives have proved ineffective
  • In situations where penicillins might be considered.
  • To assist in the management of abscesses, since it is particularly effective against the commonly associated bacteria (Pasteurella, Staphyloccocus, anaerobes). 
  • Management of respiratory tract infections.
  • Management of mild to moderate skin and soft tissue infection.
  • Treatment of non-tubercular mycobacterial infections.
  • In man is used as a single dose for treatment of genital chlamydial infections.
  • Active against gram positive cocci (except some Staphylococci), gram positive bacilli, some gram negative bacilli, (such as Haemophilus and Pasteurella spp).
  • Also effective against:
    • Mycobacteria.
    • Anaerobes.
    • Chlamydia spp.
    • Mycoplasma spp.
    • Toxoplasma spp.
  • Some strains of Actinomyes, Nocardia, Chlamydia, and Rickettsia are inhibited by azithromycin.
  • Resistance is exhibited by most strains of Pseudomonas spp, E. coli and Klebsiella.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Increases serum levels of:
    • Methylprednisolone.
    • Theophylline.
    • Terfenadine.
    • Warfarin.
    • Enhances absorption of digoxin.
    • Cyclosporin.
  • Do not use with cisapride
  • Separate administration of azithromycin and antacids.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed. Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, Quedgeley, UK.
  • Plumb D C (2008) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 6th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 1120.
  • Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W (2004) Formulary. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. pp 436-444.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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