Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Alfaxalone

Synonym(s): Alfaxan, Alfaxolone, Alphaxalone, Alphaxolone

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, David Perpinan

Introduction

Name

  • Alfaxalone.
  • Initially available in combination with alfadolone, however this combination is no longer on the market.

Class of drug

  • Neuroactive steroid general anesthetic.
  • Agonist of GABA receptors.

Description

Chemical name

  • 3-alpha- hydroxy-5-alpha-pregnane-11,20-dione.

Molecular formula

  • C21H32O3.

Molecular weight

  • 332.48.

Physical properties

  • Clear, slightly viscous solution.

Storage requirements

  • Store below 25°C/77°F.
  • Do not freeze. Some sources recommend not to refrigerate, but other sources do not.
  • Protect from light.
  • Do not store opened vials (no antibacterial agent included). However, open vials are commonly used over weeks with no noticeable adverse effects and with apparent full efficacy. Aseptic technique and (maybe) refrigeration help prolonging the shelf-life of vials.

Uses

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Indications

  • General anesthesia in various small animals. It can be given IV for induction or IM for both pre-medication or induction. Most commonly used IV for induction of anesthesia due to short duration of action.
  • It can be titrated till effect.
  • Alfaxalone can be combined with many other pre-anesthetic and anesthetic drugs.
  • Low doses given IM produce sedation.
  • It can be used for long anesthetic events, either as constant rate infusion (CRI) or using multiple injections. While it is better for this purpose than propofol and adverse effects do not seem to increase associated with repeated or prolonged use, it is better used for short procedures or for induction followed by maintenance with isoflurane or sevoflurane.

Administration

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Pharmacokinetics

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Precautions

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Interactions

with other drugs

  • Tramadol. A strong excitation reaction has been noted when alfaxalone (10 mg/kg IV) was given in combination with tramadol (5 mg/kg IM) in ferrets.

Adverse Reactions

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Giral M, Garcia-Olmo D C, Gomez-Juarez M et al (2014) Anaesthetic effects in the ferret of alfaxalone alone and in combination with medetomidine or tramadol: a pilot study. Lab Anim 48 (4), 313-320 PubMed.
  • Jones K L (2012) Therapeutic review: alfaxalone. J Exotic Pet Med 21 (4), 347-353 ExoticPetMed.
  • Green C J et al (1978) Alphaxolone-alphadolone anaesthesia in laboratory animals. Lab Anim 12 (2), 85-89 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets.  9th edn. BSAVA, Quedgeley, Gloucester, UK.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (2013) Veterinary Medicines Guidance Notes. Website: www.gov.uk.
  • Flecknell P A (1996) Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia. 2nd edn. Academic Press.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

ADDED