Exotis ISSN 2398-2985


Gastrointestinal neoplasia

Contributor(s): Cathy Johnson-Delaney, David Perpinan


  • Many types of neoplasia, both benign and malignant, have been documented, including:
    • Lymphoma (most common).
    • Hemangiosarcoma.
    • Adenocarcinoma.
    • Hepatoma.
    • Biliary cystadenoma.
    • Hepatocellular adenoma.
  • Pancreatic islet cell tumors may metastasize into the liver.
  • Prognosis is poor, although some benign neoplasias have been found incidentally at necropsy.
  • Most neoplasias are found in ferrets >3 years of age, although pancreatic islet cell tumors have been seen in ferrets as young as 6 months of age.


This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login


This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading


Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Rhody J L & Williams B H (2013) Exocrine pancreatic adenocarcinoma and associated extrahepatic biliary obstruction in a ferret. J Exotic Pet Med 22 (2), 206-211 JExoticPetMed.
  • Lennox A M (2005) Gastrointestinal diseases of the ferret. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 8 (2), 213-225 VetClinExoticAnimPract.
  • Garcia A, Erdman S E et al (2002) Hepatobiliary inflammation, neoplasia, and argyrophilic bacteria in a ferret colony. Vet Pathol 39 (2), 173-179 PubMed.
  • Erdman S E, Correa P, Coleman L A et al (1997) Helicobacter mustelae-associated gastric MALT lymphoma in ferrets. Am J Pathol 151 (1), 273-280 PubMed.
  • Rice L E, Stahl S J & McLeod Jr C G (1992) Pyloric adenocarcinoma in a ferret. J Am Vet Med Assoc 200 (8), 1117-1118 VetMedResource.
  • Cross B M (1987) Hepatic vascular neoplasms in a colony of ferrets. Vet Pathol 24 (1), 94-96 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Perpinan D & Johnson-Delaney C A (2017) Disorders of the Digestive System and Liver. In: Ferret Medicine and Surgery. Ed: Johnson-Delaney C A. CRC Press, USA. pp 159-190.
  • Fox J G, Muthupalani S, Kiupel M & Williams B (2014) Neoplastic Diseases. In: Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. 3rd edn. Eds: Fox K G & Marini R P. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford, UK. pp. 587-625.
  • Hoefer H L, Fox J G & Bell J A (2012) Gastrointestinal Diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier, St. Louis, USA. pp 27-45.
  • Burgess M E (2007) Ferret Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Diseases. In: Ferret Husbandry, Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Ed: Lewington J H. Saunders, Philadelphia, USA. pp 203-223.