ISSN 2398-2985      

Analgesia

4ferrets

Introduction

  • Providing analgesia during and after procedures, especially surgical interventions, contributes to patient wellbeing and improved anesthesia outcome.
  • It is important to give analgesics pre-emptively, as a more effective pain relief can be achieved (preventing 'wind-up').
  • Furthermore, a major advantage of effective intra-operative analgesia is the reduced need for injectable or inhalant agents to maintain a level of anesthesia.
  • In addition to anesthetic dose reduction, pre-emptive analgesia reduces post-operative recovery time due to enhanced locomotion and increased appetite.

Approach

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Analgesic drugs for the ferret

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Reijgwart M L, Schoemaker N J, Pascuzzo R et al (2017) The composition and initial evaluation of a grimace scale in ferrets after surgical implantation of a telemetry probe. PLOS One 12 (11), e0187986 PubMed.
  • Sinclair K M, Eckstrand C, Moore P F et al (2016) Epitheliotropic gastrointestinal T-cell lymphoma with concurrent insulinoma and adrenocortical carcinoma in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). J Exot Pet Med 25 (1), 34-43 VetMedResource.
  • Giral M, Garcia-Olmo D C, Gomez-Juarez M et al (2014) Anaesthetic effects in the ferret of alfaxalone alone and in combination with medetomidine or tramadol: a pilot study. Lab Anim 48 (4), 313-320 PubMed.
  • Pignon C, Vallefuoco R, Krumeich N et al (2014) Surgical repair of a pelvic fracture in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo). J Exot Pet Med 23 (1), 96-100 VetMedResource.
  • Chinnadurai D K, Messenger K M, Papich M G et al (2014) Meloxicam pharmacokinetics using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling in ferrets after single subcutaneous administration. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 37 (4), 382-387 PubMed.
  • Myers D & Jung R A (2009) Hydromorphone. J Exot Pet Med 18 (1), 71-73.
  • Lichtenberger M y Ko J (2007) Anaesthesia and analgesia for small mammals and birds. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 10 (2), 293-315 PubMed.
  • Johnston M S (2005) Clinical approaches to analgesia in ferrets and rabbits. Sem Avian Exot Pet Med 14 (4), 229-23 VetMedResource.
  • Flecknell P A (2001) Analgesia of small mammals. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 4 (1), 47-56 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed. BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Fox J G & Marini R P (2014) Eds. Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. 3rd edn. Wiley Blackwell, USA. pp 835.
  • Hawkins M G & Pascoe P J (2012) Anesthesia, Analgesia and Sedation of Small Mammals. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier, USA. pp 429-451.
  • Morrisey J K & Carpenter J W (2012) Formulary. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier, USA. pp 566-575.
  • Plumb D C (2008) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 6th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 1120.

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