Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Pyometra

Contributor(s): Cathy Johnson-Delaney, David Perpinan

Introduction

  • Infection in the uterus.
  • Cause: ascending bacteria.
  • Signs: purulent exudate from vulva, lethargy, depression, pyrexia, enlarged uterus.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, ultrasonography, vaginal swab, vaginal examination.
  • Treatment: antimicrobials, ovariohysterectomy.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Infection of the stump or uterus is an ascending bacterial disease.
  • Various bacteria have been documented: E. coli, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Proteus and Corynebacterium spp.
  • In the jill, pyometra may occur as a problem of breeding and not becoming pregnant (rare).
  • Stump pyometra can be in ovariectomized sprites, particularly those with adrenal disease.
  • Hyperestrogenism is also associated with cases of pyometra.
  • Keeping females in beddings with grass seeds or awns also predisposed to pyometra.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Keeping females in beddings with grass seeds or awns.
  • Imbalances in sexual hormones seem to be associated with pyometra, and therefore pyometra is more frequently seen in cases of hyperestrogenism, adrenal disease, ovarian tumors Ovarian neoplasia and, more rarely, pseudopregnancy Pseudopregnancy.

Pathophysiology

  • It has been proposed that pyometra in the breeding ferret may be under the influence of estrogens and not progestagens.
  • Pyometra may be open or closed.
  • Vaginitis is also associated with hyperestrogenism, and ascending vaginitis may produce cystitis Cystitis and urolithiasis and pyometra.
  • Septicemia may occur in some cases.

Epidemiology

  • Uncommon in pet ferrets.
  • More common in breeding facilities.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Martinez-Jimenez D, Chary P, Barron H et al (2009) Cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra Complex in two female ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). J Exotic Pet Med 18 (1), 62-70 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Fox J G & Marini R P (2014) Eds Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. 3rd edn. Wiley Blackwell, USA. pp 835.
  • Lewington J H (2007) Ferret Husbandry, Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Saunders, USA. pp 521.


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