Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Ocular gland prolapse

Synonym(s): Lacrimal gland prolapse, Glans nictitans prolapse

Contributor(s): Agata Witkowska, Vicki Baldrey

Introduction

  • Cause: 
  • Signs: acute onset swelling in the vicinity of the eye noted by the owner.
  • Diagnosis: clinical examination Clinical examination.
  • Treatment:
    • Surgical replacement of prolapsed gland.
    • Amputation of prolapsed tissue is an option in cases of severe neoplasia. This may serve as a debulking procedure only.
    • Medical treatment.
    • If no ocular discomfort and compromise present, simple monitoring may be sufficient.
  • Prognosis: good if no neoplastic process present.

Anatomy

  • Ferrets possess a well-developed third eyelid.
  • There are two main tear producing glands:
    • One associated with the nictitating membrane located within the ventral T-shaped cartilage at the base of the third eyelid.
    • One located in the dorsolateral aspect of the orbit.
  • The lacrimal points are in the medial part of the upper and lower eyelids.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma most common.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Obesity may play a factor in some cases.

Specific

  • Lipid deposits within the glans nictitans.

Timecourse

  • Trauma: acute.
  • Obesity: gradual development dependent on degree of lipid deposit in and around the lacrimal gland.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Avallone G, Forlani A & Tecilla M et al (2016) Neoplastic diseases in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) in Italy: classification and tissue distribution of 856 cases (2000–2010). BMC Vet Res 12 (1), 275 PubMed.
  • Good K L (2002) Ocular disorders of pet ferrets. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 5 (2), 325-339 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Johnson-Delaney C A (2016) Disorders of the Ears and the Eyes. In: Ferret Medicine and Surgery. CRC Press, USA. pp 231-233.
  • Powers L V & Brown S A (2012) Ferrets: Basic Anatomy, Physiology and Husbandry. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. Eds: Carpenter J W & Quesenberry K E. Elsevier/Saunders, USA. pp 9.
  • Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira (2009) Ferrets: Ophthalmology. In: BSAVA Manual of Rodents and Ferrets. Ed: Keeble E & Meredith A. BSAVA, UK. pp 311.


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