ISSN 2398-2985      

Mammary gland adenocarcinoma

4ferrets
Contributor(s):

Sarah Brown

David Perpiñán


Introduction

  • Cause: unclear, but many mammary tumors are under estrogen and progesterone stimulation.
  • Signs: small nodule in glandular tissue. May become large and ulcerated. May have serous or bloody discharge.
  • Diagnosis: fine needle aspirate for cytology (may not always yield a diagnostic sample). Material collected can be cultured if bacterial infection suspected. Biopsy for histopathology and definitive diagnosis.
  • Treatment: surgical excision. Adenocarcinomas have the potential for recurrence, particularly if insufficient surgical margins are taken. Metastasis may have occurred by the time of surgery – fine needle aspiration of adjacent lymph nodes for cytology and thoracic radiography may be prudent prior to surgery if this is suspected.
  • Prognosis: mammary tumors are rare in ferrets:
    • Mammary tumors in ferrets can be malignant adenocarcinomas, benign adenomas or fibroadenomas.
    • Prognosis for mammary adenocarcinoma is generally guarded, whereas excision of adenomas is likely to be curative. Thus, definitive diagnosis is important when considering prognosis.
Print off the Owner factsheet on Mammary gland adenocarcinoma to give to your clients.
 

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown but may be related to reproductive hormone stimulation.

Predisposing factors

  • Unclear.

Pathophysiology

  • It is proposed that there may be reproductive hormone stimulation that induces neoplasia.

Timecourse

  • Usually weeks to months.

Epidemiology

  • Not a contagious process.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kanfer S & Reavill D R (2013) Cutaneous neoplasia in ferrets, rabbits, and guinea pigs. Vet Clin Exot Anim 16 (3), 579-598 PubMed.
  • Li X, Fox J G & Padrid P A (1998) Neoplastic diseases in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo): a review of Veterinary Medical Data Base (1968-1997). JAVMA 212, 1402 PubMed.
  • Mor N, Qualls Jr, C W, Hoover J P (1992) Concurrent mammary gland hyperplasia and adrenocortical carcinoma in a domestic ferret. JAVMA 201, 1911-1912 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Williams B H & Wyre N R (2021) Neoplasia in Ferrets. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 4th edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E, Orcutt C J, Mans C & Carpenter J W. Elsevier, NL. pp 92-108.
  • Johnson-Delaney C A (2018) Disorders of the Skin. In: Ferret Medicine and Surgery. Ed: Johnson-Delaney C A. CRC Press, USA. pp 325-346.
  • Williams B H, Weiss C A (2004) Neoplasia. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. W B Saunders, USA. pp 91-106.

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