Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Hypoadrenocorticism

Synonym(s): Addison’s disease, Idiopathic hypoadrenocorticism

Contributor(s): Cathy Johnson-Delaney, David Perpinan

Introduction

  • Cause: a complication of (sub)total bilateral adrenalectomy or following treatment with mitotane in ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism.
  • Signs: lethargy, anorexia, weakness, shock.
  • Diagnosis: serum electrolyte evaluation, ACTH stimulation test.
  • Treatment: supplementation with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.
  • Prognosis: fair if diagnosed early; poor if severe electrolyte abnormalities present.
  • Hypoadrenocorticism is a condition characterized by a hypofunction of the adrenal cortex resulting in a decreased secretion of both mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Hypoadrenocorticism has been diagnosed in ferrets as a complication of (sub)total bilateral adrenalectomy or following treatment with mitotane in ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism Hyperadrenocorticism/hyperandrogenism.
  • In a follow-up study concerning long-term outcome following surgery for hyperadrenocorticism, four out of 28 ferrets (14.3%) with bilateral adrenalectomy developed signs of hypoadrenocorticism within the first weeks following surgery.
  • In contrast to other animals, spontaneous (primary) hypoadrenocorticism has not been diagnosed in ferrets.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Predisposition to develop adrenal disease (adrenal tumors) is high in ferrets. Adrenal disease is the second most common neoplasia in ferrets after insulinoma. Surgical treatment for adrenal tumors may lead to hypoadrenocorticism.
  • Adrenal disease (adrenal tumors) is associated with early neutering.

Epidemiology

  • This condition is rare in ferrets.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lennox A M & Wagner R A (2012) Comparison of 4.7-mg deslorelin implants and surgery for the treatment of adrenocortical disease in ferrets. J Exotic Pet Med 21 (4): 332–335 VetMedResource.
  • Van Zeeland Y R A, Pabon M, Roest J & Schoemaker N J (2014) Use of a GnRH agonist implant as alternative for surgical neutering in pet ferrets. Vet Rec 175 (3), 66 PubMed.
  • Wagner R A, Finkler M R, Fecteau K A & Trigg T E (2009) The treatment of adrenal cortical disease in ferrets with 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implants. J Exotic Pet Med 18 (2), 146-152 VetMedResource.
  • Wagner R A, Piché C A, Jöchle W & Oliver J W (2005) Clinical and endocrine responses to treatment with deslorelin acetate implants in ferrets with adrenocortical disease. Am J Vet Res 66 (5),  910-914 PubMed.
  • Wagner R A, Bailey E M, Schneider J F & Oliver J W (2001) Leuprolide acetate treatment of adrenocortical disease in ferrets. J Am Vet Med Assoc 218 (8), 1272-1274 PubMed.
  • Rosenthal K L (1997) Adrenal gland disease in ferrets. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 27 (2), 401-418 PubMed.
  • Weiss C A & Scott M V (1997) Clinical aspects and surgical treatment of hyperadrenocorticism in the domestic ferret: 94 cases (1994-1996). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 33 (6), 487-493 PubMed.
  • Rosenthal K L, Peterson M E, Quesenberry K E & Lothrop C D (1993) Evaluation of plasma cortisol and corticosterone responses to synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone administration in ferrets. Am J Vet Res 54 (1), 29-31 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Schoemaker N J & van Zeeland Y R A (2017) Disorders of the Endocrine System. In: Ferret Medicine and Surgery. Ed: Johnson-Delaney C A. CRC Press, USA. pp 191-218.
  • Miller C M, Marini R P & Fox J G (2014) Diseases of the Endocrine System. In: Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. 3rd edn. Eds: Fox J G & Marini R P. Wiley Blackwell, Ames, USA. pp 377-400.
  • Wagner R A (2014) Diseases of the Cardiovascular System. In: Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. 3rd edn. Eds: Fox J G & Marini R P. Wiley Blackwell, Ames, USA. pp 401-419.
  • Rosenthal K L & Wyre N R (2012) Endocrine Diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier, St. Louis, USA. pp 86–102.


ADDED