Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Cranial cruciate ligament rupture

Synonym(s): Cruciate rupture

Contributor(s): Agata Witkowska, David Perpinan

Introduction

  • Cranial cruciate ligament rupture is poorly described in ferrets.
  • Cause: usually trauma related.
  • Signs: acute onset lameness, pain, stifle effusion, limb swelling.
  • Diagnosis:
    • Often based on presentation and clinical history.
    • General anesthesia, stifle joint mobility assessment and radiographs may be needed.
    • Positive drawer test made under sedation/anesthesia.
  • Treatment:
    • ​Conservative: rest, exercise restriction and analgesia.
    • Surgical fixation in big enough patients and where finances allow.
  • Prognosis: guarded to good.​
  • The anatomy of the cruciate ligament in the ferret is the same as in dogs.
  • The stability of stifle joint can be assessed by testing anterior laxity using the cranial drawer test.
  • Rupture and surgical repair of the posterior cruciate ligament has been described in the ferret.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Traumatic.
  • Secondary to co-morbidities, eg metabolic bone disease.
  • Idiopathic.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Inappropriate husbandry leading to injury, eg substrate used in enclosures.
  • Conformation, eg underlying osteoarthritis.
  • Co-morbidities, eg metabolic bone disease.

Specific

  • Traumatic event.

Pathophysiology

  • Uncertain.
  • Partial ruptures of the cruciate ligament with joint instability and stifle subluxations have been described.

Timecourse

  • Likely variable, from acute to progressive dependent on animal's age and predisposing conditions such as osteoarthritis.
  • Dependent on detection and familiarity of keeper with normal mobility in the species as well as frequency of monitoring, eg outdoor enclosures, hutches.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Anonymous (2009) Diagnosis: rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament. Lab Anim 38 (1), 10 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Johnson-Delaney C (2018) Cruciate Ligament Rupture. In: Ferret Medicine and Surgery. CRC Press, USA. pp 262.
  • Turner V P, Brash M L & Smith D A (2018) Ferrets. In: Pathology of Small Mammal Pets. Wiley Blackwell, UK. pp 107.
  • Fox J G & Marini P R (2014) Anatomy of the Ferret. In: Biology and Diseases of The Ferret. Wiley & Sons, UK. pp 29-30.
  • Pignon C & Jardel N (2011) Rupture of a Posterior Cruciate Ligament in a Ferret. In: Proc Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Conference. pp 347.


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