Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Conjunctivitis

Synonym(s): Inflammation of the conjunctiva

Contributor(s): Cathy Johnson-Delaney, David Perpinan

Introduction

  • Cause: local irritants, foreign body, corneal lesion.
  • Signs: inflammation of the conjunctiva, usually with epiphora or discharge; the lids may also be swollen.
  • Diagnosis: history (consider environment), physical/ophthalmic examination, PCR, biopsy.
  • Treatment: foreign body removal, topical antimicrobials, NSAIDs.
  • Prognosis: good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Local irritants such as dusty bedding, conjunctival foreign body or a corneal lesion may contribute, although the latter two are usually unilateral in signs.
  • Conjunctivitis is also seen with canine distemper Canine distemper or influenza Influenza.
  • Mycobacterium genovense has been reported with proliferative or a chemotic conjunctivitis.
  • Conjunctivitis has been associated with Salmonella infection although a minor clinical sign. Kittens may also develop panophthalmitis due to E. coli infection.
  • Distichiasis has been reported in a ferret with conjunctivitis.
  • Lack of vitamin A or biotin can experimentally induce conjunctivitis.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Verboven C A P M, Djajadiningrat-Laanen S C, Kitslaar W J P et al (2014) Distichiasis in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Ophthal 17 (4), 290-293 PubMed.
  • Lucas J, Lucas A, Furber H et al (2000) Mycobacterium genavense infection in two aged ferrets with conjunctival lesions. Aust Vet J 78 (10), 685-689 PubMed.
  • Miller P E (1997) Ferret ophthalmology. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 6 (3), 146-151 JExoticPetMed.

Other sources of information

  • Williams D L (2012) The Ferret Eye. In: Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, UK. pp 73-85.


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