ISSN 2398-2985      

Cardiac arrhythmias including conduction disturbances

4ferrets

Introduction

  • Cause: problems with the electrical conduction system of the heart.
  • Signs: abnormal heart rate/rhythm,
  • Diagnosis: electrocardiography.
  • Treatment: depends on cause and severity.
  • Prognosis: depends on type of cardiac arrhythmia or conduction abnormality, as well as any underlying disease. Poor prognosis if profound bradycardia.
Print off the Owner factsheet on Heart problems to give to your clients.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Problems with the electrical conduction system of the heart.

Pathophysiology

  • Cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities may be physiologic or pathologic in origin.
  • Sinus arrhythmia is the most common finding:
    • Due to increased vagal tone.
    • Can be resolved following exercise or administration of a parasympatholytic drug, eg atropine, glycopyrrolate.
  • Pathologic arrhythmias may occur due to: stress, pain, hyperthermia, hypoxia, shock, electrolyte or metabolic disturbances (eg hypercalcemia, hypo- or hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia (insulinoma)), infections (eg sepsis), intoxications (eg digoxin), anesthesia, endocrine disease (eg hyperthyroidism), anemia and cardiac abnormalities (eg dilated cardiomyopathy, myocarditis).

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Von Zeeland Y R A & Schoemaker N J (2017) Disorders of the Cardiovascular System. In Ferret Medicine and Surgery. Ed: Johnson-Delaney C A. CRC Press, USA. pp 127-157.
  • Morrisey J K & Kraus M S (2012) Ferrets: Cardiovascular and other Diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Saunders, USA. pp 62-77.
  • Klaphake E (2011) Bradyarrhthmias. In: Blackwell’s Five Minute Veterinary Consult: Small Mammal. 2nd edn. Ed: Oglesbee B L. Wiley Blackwell, USA. pp 60-61.

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