Exotis ISSN 2398-2985

Ferrets

Bacterial pneumonia

Contributor(s): Cathy Johnson-Delaney, David Perpinan

Introduction

  • Cause: infection with Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Mycobacterium spp or gram-negative bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Listeria monocytogenes, Bordetella bronchiseptica and E coli.
  • Signs: initially non-specific; severe cases show nasal discharge, tachypnea, dyspnea, cough, increased respiratory effort.
  • Diagnosis: auscultation, radiography, bronchoalveolar lavage.
  • Treatment: antibiotics, fluid therapy, NSAIDs, bronchodilators, oxygen therapy.
  • Prognosis: guarded.
  • Bacterial pneumonia is relatively uncommon in ferrets, usually occurring secondary to an underlying disease or process, eg viral infection, aspiration pneumonia, etc. It can be characterized by a suppurative inflammation affecting the bronchial tree and/or lung lobes.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Bacterial infection can occur via inhalation, aspiration or by hematogenous spread.
  • Severity of disease depends on the pathogen implicated and its rate of multiplication.
  • Immune compromised animals are at greatest risk of developing a bacterial pneumonia.
  • Primary respiratory pathogens affecting ferrets include Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Mycobacterium spp and gram-negative bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Listeria monocytogenes, Bordetella bronchiseptica and E. coli.

Epidemiology

  • Primary bacterial pneumonia is a rare condition in ferrets and most cases are usually secondary, eg distemper Canine distemper, influenza Influenza.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Martinez J, Martorell J, Abarca M L et al (2012) Pyogranulomatous pleuropneurnonia and mediastinitis in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) associated with Pseudomonas luteola infection. J Comp Pathol 146 (1), 4-10 PubMed.
  • Perpiñán D & Ramis A (2011) Endogenous lipid pneumonia in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo). J Exotic Pet Med 20 (1), 51-55 VetMedResource.
  • Powers L V (2009) Bacterial and parasitic diseases of ferrets. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 12 (3), 531-561 PubMed.
  • Perpiñán D, Ramis A, Tomás A et al (2008) Outbreak of canine distemper in domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Rec 163 (8), 248-252 PubMed.
  • Kendrick R E (2000) Ferret respiratory diseases. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 3 (2), 453-464 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Richardson J & Perpinan D (2017) Disorders of the Respiratory System. In: Ferret Medicine & Surgery. Ed: Johnson-Delaney C A. CRC Press, USA. pp 311-324.
  • Barron H W & Rosenthal K L (2012) Respiratory Diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis, USA. pp 78-85.
  • Orcutt C & Malakoff R (2009) Ferrets: Cardiovascular and Respiratory System Disorders. In: BSAVA Manual of Rodents and Ferrets. Eds: Keeble K & Meredith A. BSAVA, Gloucester, UK. pp 282-290.


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