Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Vagina and cervix: manual examination

Contributor(s): William Ley, Graham Munroe, Elaine Watson, Madeleine L H Campbell

Introduction

  • The manual examination of vagina and cervix is done in addition to vaginoscopic examination Female: vaginoscopy.
  • It is part of a breeding soundness examination, or a discreet examination where reproductive problems originating in the vagina or cervix are suspected.
  • The technique used can be also applied when introducing swabs, etc into the uterus.

Uses

  • To measure the degree of dilation of the cervix when in estrus and pre-partum.
  • To assess integrity of the length of the cervix.
  • To assess the length and straightness of the cervix (corresponding to ease of cervical catherisation) in potential non-surgical embryo transfer recipients Embryo transfer.
  • To palpate for rectovaginal tears Perineum: trauma or other injuries/problems.
  • Investigation of reproductive problems.

Advantages

  • Manual palpation can occasionally detect tears dorsally in the vagina and anywhere along the internal lumen of cervix that are not detectable by vaginoscopy.

Disadvantages

  • If not done in an aseptic manner, may risk introducing contaminants to the anterior reproductive tract which may lead to endometritis Uterus: endometritis: bacterial.
  • Is combined with vaginoscopy for a thorough appraisal of the vagina and cervix.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Sertich P L (2007) Cervical Adhesions. In: Current Therapy in Equine Reproduction. Elsevier. pp 137-139.
  • England G C W (2005) Clinical Examination of the Mare’s Reproductive Tract. In: Fertility and Obstetrics in the Horse. 3rd edn. Wiley, UK. pp 20-29.
  • Beard W L (2003) Perineal and Cervical Lacerations. In: Current Therapy in Equine Medicine. 5th edn. Elsevier. pp 333-335.
  • Ley W B (1998) Examination of the Vulva, Vestibule, Vagina and Cervix. In: Large Animal Urogenital Surgery. 2nd edn. Williams & Wilkins. pp 87-90. ISBN: 0-683-09230-8.
  • Colahan P T et al (1991) Equine Medicine and Surgery. 4th edn. American Veterinary Publications, Inc, USA. pp 956. ISBN: 0 939674 27 0 (Concise summary of main points).


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