Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Ultrasonography: reproductive tract - male

Synonym(s): Ultrasonography of the male reproductive tract

Contributor(s): Ron Friedman, Graham Munroe

Introduction

  • Not used routinely at the present time in stallions, but rapidly increasing in popularity.

Uses

  • A useful adjunct to stallion breeding-soundness examination   Male: genitalia - examination  .
  • An important diagnostic tool for examination of reproductive pathology in the stallion.

Advantages

  • technique allows for inspection of internal reproductive organs.
  • Non-invasive examination of components of the male reproductive system.

Disadvantages

  • Rectal palpation involves risk to examiner and animal.
  • Examination of the external genitalia often requires the veterinary surgeon to be in a potentially vulnerable position in relation to the horses hind legs and therefore proper restraint   Restraint methods  is essential and extreme care must be taken of personnel and equipment.
  • Experience is needed to perform the technique and interpret the ultrasound images.
  • Narrow scope of result findings, ie structural abnormalities.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Resende H L et al (2014) Determination of equine fetal sex by Doppler ultrasonography of the gonads. Equine Vet J 46 (6), 756-758 PubMed
  • Schambourg M A, Falrey J A, Marcoux M & Laverty S (2006) Use of transabdominal ultrasonography to determine the location of cryptorchid testes in the horse. Equine Vet J 38 (3), 242-245 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Reef V B (2003) Ed Equine Diagnostic Ultrasound. W B Saunders. ISBN: 0721650236.
  • Rantanen N W & McKinnon A O (1998) EdsEquine Diagnostic Ultrasonography.Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. ISBN: 0683071238.


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