Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Reproduction: venereal disease examination

Contributor(s): Terry Blanchard, Vetstream Ltd, Elaine Watson, Madeleine L H Campbell

Introduction

Uses

  • To detect fulminant disease mainly in mares.
  • Detect carrier animals, particularly stallions.
  • Prevent venereal transmission upon identity of the above.

Advantages

  • Control of venereal disease has economic benefit in the prevention of abortion storms, transmissible endometritis and infertility of both mares and stallions.

Disadvantages

  • Clinical examination may not detect carrier states.
  • Repeated tests for some diseases, eg CEMO, are necessary to confirm absence of carrier status
  • Bacteriology.
  • Test mating is sometimes used after a period of treatment.
  • Serology.
  • Microaerophilic bacteriology culture results for CEMO take 7 days to complete, which can cause a delay in breeding.
  • A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of swabs for the CEMO, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is now validated for industry screening purposes in the UK:
    • PCR test results may be available within 24 h of arrival at a laboratory that is able to undertake PCR testing.
    • Positive PCR results will need to be further investigated by conventional culture to help determine their significance and, in the case of Klebsiella pneumoniae, for capsule typing.
    • PCR testing is not recognised for import/export testing in the UK.
    • Cost of testing adds to the cost of breeding, and, since testing requirements are voluntary, uptake may not be high amongst certain sections of the quine breeding industry (particularly non-Thoroughbred).

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Watson E (1997) Swabbing protocols in screening for contagious equine metritis. Vet Rec 140, 268-271 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Horserace Betting Levy Board (2017) Codes of Practice. 5th Floor, 21 Bloomsbury Street, London WC1B 3HF, UK. Tel: +44 (0)207 333 0043; Fax: +44 (0)207 333 0041; Email: enquiries@hblb.org.uk; Website: http://codes.hblb.org.uk.
  • Pascucci I et al (2013) Diagnosis of Dourine Outbreaks in Italy. Vet Parasitol 193 (1-3), 30-38.
  • Samper J & Tibury A (2006) Disease Transmission in Horses. Theriogenol 66 (3), 551-559.
  • Campbell M L H, Carson D, House C & Wood J L N (2009) Preventing Venereal Disease in Horses. Vet Rec 164 (21), 667.
  • Ricketts S (2004) How to Collect Reproductive Swabs in Stud Practice. In: Proc 43rd BEVA Congress. Equine Vet J Ltd, Newmarket. pp 226.
  • Colahan P T et al (1991) Equine Medicine and Surgery. 4th edn. Vol 2. American Veterinary Publications, Inc. pp 850-851. ISBN: 0 939674 27 0 (concise summary of main points).


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